[Montreal Montage] [Alice and Sandrine]

The Alfa Romeo Montreal Website

This is an independent website, maintained by Bruce Taylor, Geneva, Switzerland, and last updated 23 July 2014. It is not connected with Alfa Romeo or any other manufacturer.

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Comprehensive Alfa Romeo Montreal technical book! (320 pages, 950 illustrations, hardcover) -

Available now from Amazon US - Amazon UK - Amazon Deutschland - Amazon France - Amazon Canada - Amazon Italy or Amazon Spain -

or Click here to order the Alfa Romeo Montreal book from Amazon Italy
or Click here to order the Alfa Romeo Montreal book from Amazon Spain

New hardcover Alfa Romeo Montreal pictorial book! -

Available now from Amazon US - Amazon UK - Amazon Deutschland - Amazon France - Amazon Canada - Amazon Italy or Amazon Spain -

or Click here to order the new pictorial book from Amazon Italy
or Click here to order the new pictorial book from Amazon Spain

Alfa Romeo Montreal items offered on eBay right now -

Spica fuel injection items -

Alfa Romeo Montreal items offered on eBay Deutschland -

Dedicated to Alfa Romeo's most exotic series production automobile -

[The Alfa Romeo Montreal (1970-1977)]

"Pour beaucoup, la Montreal reste comme la plus belle Alfa de la deuxième moitié du XXe siècle"

- "Alfa Romeo" by Fabien Sabatès

"Among the most beautiful, potent and rare GT cars to wear the Alfa badge"

- "Undiscovered Treasure" by Pat Braden

"The fastest, smoothest, quietest production Alfa Romeo ever made, the current Supercar of the species"

- D.O. Cozzi, Car and Driver

"La sportiva di classe che parla al futuro"

- Alfa Romeo, 2004

"Riding that fine line between sports car and grand tourer, the Montreal is one of the most desirable Alfa Romeos ever made"

- Motor Trend Classic, 2012


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Future EU Montreal meetings

Very successful international meetings for Montreal enthusiasts have been held in various European countries every year since 1987. The 2014 meeting will be held from 4 to 7 September at Beaune in the beautiful Burgundy wine region of France, and will be organised by Philippe Cauche with the support of Philippe Delaage. Beaune, with its remarkable 15th-century Hôtel-Dieu, is very centrally situated in Europe, being 7h30 from London, 9h40 from Berlin, 7h10 from Amsterdam, 10h15 from Vienna, 7h from Barcelona and 10h30 from Rome.

The excursions will include visits to the Morvan Regional Natural Park, the enchanting town of Véselay with its magnificent Sainte Marie-Madeleine Abbey, Semur-en-Auxois, picturesque Nuits-Saint-Georges, Châteauneuf-en-Auxois with its impressive castle, and the pretty old village of Montréal, overlooking the Serein valley. The Montreals should be able to enjoy the Auxois Sud Racing Circuit, which includes a straight section 406 metres long!

A private visit may be arranged to the wine cellars of the Château de Savigny, which also has an adjoining motorcycle, automobile and aeronautics museum. In addition to fine wines, participants should have the opportunity to taste the famous highly-flavoured Epoisses Cheese.

So far 170 people with 84 Montreals from 12 countries have registered for the meeting, which is a record participation. Late registrations are still possible by contacting Philippe Cauche by email or telephone (+33 607 450 251). The price for two persons, one room and one car is EUR 1020, all inclusive except for the Sunday morning activities.

It is planned to hold the 2015 meeting in the Dolomites in north-eastern Italy (local organiser Sestilio Marcheselli). The 2016 meeting will be held in Belgium (local organiser Xavier Lemaire).

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Past EU Montreal meetings

The 27th meeting was held from Thursday 12 to Sunday 15 September 2013 in Hamburg, Germany, and was organised by Hans-Georg Tornow and Horst Lange. It was attended by 94 people (including 3 children) from 12 countries with 36 Montreals, one Montreal-engined Fastback Spider and 8 other cars. The meeting hotel was the 4-star Holiday Inn Hamburg, which is only a few kilometers from the city centre and perfectly located for Montreal trips within the city and to the surrounding countryside. Although Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany (its population is 1.8 million), and street traffic is quite dense, the hotel is within easy reach of the autobahn and roads leading to the city centre. In addition to the main block of rooms in the 4-star Holiday Inn, a limited number of rooms were also reserved in the Bridge Inn, which is a 2-star annex of this hotel. These lower-priced rooms were available for participants under 40 years of age who needed a single room, or people who were involved in organising the meeting or who had organised one in the past.

The meeting programme included a harbour boat cruise with Tapas Buffet and visits to the Automobile Prototype Museum, Bardowick Cathedral, Lütjensee, and a guided tour of the International Garden Show "Around the World in 80 Gardens" with its educational and cultural events, leisure facilities, and new monorail. Josef Bürgi held a number of impromptu Montreal repair/adjustment sessions in the hotel parking area.

After lunch on Saturday Frank Hanel organised a group photoshoot at Fischerklause, and a Mediterranean Gala Buffet was provided in the evening. The Bernhard Schalbetter Memorial Trophy for the longest distance travelled to the meeting was presented to Sestilio Marcheselli, who drove to Hamburg from Rovigo in Italy. Before the final lunch of local specialities on Sunday, a short visit was made to the historic pumping station at the former Kaltehofe waterworks.

Alexander Radicke has written detailed accounts of the meeting in English and German.

Here are some photos from the 2013 Montreal meeting:

Here are some short YouTube videos of the 2013 meeting: A DVD of the meeting can be supplied to participants and non-participants by Alexander Radicke, who should be contacted for details of the cost.

Here are some pictures from earlier meetings:

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US Montreal meetings

Several Montreals attended the 2009 AROC National Convention, which was held in Portland, Oregon, from 15 to 19 July. Gene Brown from Simi Valley, California, made a 7800km round trip in his Montreal to visit the convention.

At least 4 Montreals attended the 2007 AROC National Convention which was held in Detroit, Michigan, from 1 to 5 August. The participation was organized by Jimmy Cornet, who brought his Montreal from Montreal, Canada, to the event and received an award for it.

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Origins

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Expo '67

Thanks to Elvira Ruocco for permission to reproduce these photos from the Alfa Romeo historical archives:

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Geneva 1970

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My Montreals

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Montreals worldwide

Europe

North America

South America

Australia and New Zealand

Africa

Asia

Middle East

Pacific

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Montreal creators

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Montreal owners

Photos and stories are most welcome for this picture gallery and personal story section!

Europe

North America

Australia and New Zealand

Africa

Asia

Middle East

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Engine

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Engineering

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Specifications

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Performance

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Finish

One reason that many Montreals have survived in excellent condition is that, after fabrication at Caselle, the steel bodywork was treated by the advanced finishing plant which had been set up by Bertone at Grugliasco in October 1970. This carried out degreasing, zinc phosphate coating and electro-deposition of the undercoat before final spray painting by hand.

In keeping with late sixties fashion and the character of the car (a racing engine dressed in a gala evening gown?), Alfa offered the Montreal in a range of flamboyant body colours. One colour chart included the finishes offered for the Montreal and the GT Zagato. Bright orange (AR601/602) was a popular choice in the early sunshine years, ordered more frequently than classic Italian red (AR521). The colour AR825, poetically named by Alfa Romeo "Luci del bosco metallizzato", has been incorrectly described as everything from olive to silver. It was in fact metallic dark brown. Alfa Romeo also used the name for the metallic light brown colour AR524, which is not included in the Montreal colour charts but was available to special order. Later Alfa Romeo re-used the name for other body colours such as AR556.

The Glasurit formulations corresponding to a number of Alfa Romeo paint codes are available through their Color-Online facility. Standox formulations for the most common Montreal paint finishes are available by their Online Search facility. Although the Color finder of Spies Hecker is the same, it can give slightly different formulations.

A finish plate indicating the make and type of the paint employed should be found on the underside of the luggage compartment cover of the vehicle (location 4). Reproduction self-adhesive anodised aluminium finish plates can be supplied by Dirk & Hannelore Nehme for EUR 6 each plus postage.

Juhani Anttila has reported that the modern Mercedes paint "Lava grey" (Du Pont Mercedes 7228 Lavagrau Met. O (+Fl. Cl.) M6388 12/99) is a good match for the "Grigio fumo opaco" finish which was originally applied to the door sills and rear bumper area of the Montreal. When their cars were repainted, many owners finished these areas with the same colour as the rest of the bodywork.

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Upholstery

Bertone fitted leather upholstery to only a few Montreals to special order, at a supplementary cost in Germany in 1976 of DEM 1580. In most cars the front seats were covered with velour fabric. The surrounds and backs of the seats, the interior of the storage compartments, the door panels and the handbrake and gear lever gaiters were all of "Texalfa", a synthetic leatherette. Expert restorers Dirk & Hannelore Nehme have created superb new leather seats and door trim for their 1972 Montreal. Ron Avery re-installed original seats and door panels in his beautifully-restored black 1972 Montreal. Laurent Schandeler has re-upholstered the seats of his 1972 Montreal in leather of the same colour as the Texalfa parts of the originals. Scott Slavin had his Montreal retrimmed in leather by Trim'll Fix It for GBP 650.

Montreal carpet colours, which included beige, blue, brown, green, grey and red, were not related to upholstery colours in a consistent manner. The carpets fitted to the luggage compartment were of a coarser (possibly more durable) grade than those fitted to the cabin and their range of colours was more restricted. In some cars they are the same colour as the cabin carpets, in others completely different.

Reproduction carpet sets for the Montreal can be supplied by HVL in Europe and World Upholstery & Trim in the USA.

The front seat foam tends to disintegrate with time. Degraded parts of limited size can be replaced with silicone, which can be sculpted with a soapy glove. In the case of more severe damage, good interior restorers should be able to rebuild the foam, shaping it like the original. Tom Sanor entirely replaced the seat foam of his Montreal using 16 pieces cut from 7 blocks of foam with an electric meat-cutting knife and razor blades.

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Books

I have written a book about the Alfa Romeo Montreal (ISBN 978-1845841584) which was published in June 2008 by Veloce. It is a 320-page hardcover with over 950 illustrations and may be ordered through motoring bookshops and Amazon in the USA, UK, Germany, France, Canada, Italy, Spain and Japan. It is the only English-language book dedicated solely to this car and was produced with the collaboration of Alfa Romeo, Bertone, Bosch and ZF. The book is a comprehensive reference about buying, maintaining and improving the Montreal and contains a wealth of technical information and practical tips for owners and potential owners. It also contains information about Montreal history, production, racing, meetings, reviews, drawings, art, special tools, paint finishes, models, prices and service providers.

or Click here to order the Alfa Romeo Montreal book from Amazon Italy
or Click here to order the Alfa Romeo Montreal book from Amazon Spain

In October 2009, Veloce published another new Alfa Romeo Montreal book ((ISBN 978-1845842185). This 208-page hardcover is a comprehensive pictorial tribute to the Montreal with over 575 illustrations.

or Click here to order the new pictorial book from Amazon Italy
or Click here to order the new pictorial book from Amazon Spain

Many classic car books such as "Supercars of the Seventies", ISBN 0-600-38415-2, published in 1979 by Hamlyn, include a few pages on the Alfa Romeo Montreal. In "Dream Cars: The Best Cars in the World", published in 1997 by George Weidenfeld & Nicolson, author Andrew Frankel includes the Montreal in his catalogue of the 50 most desirable cars in the history of motoring. The Montreal is the first car cited in "My Dad wished he had one of those", ISBN 9780340 963241, published in 2008 by Hodder & Stoughton. Authors Richard Porter and Giles Chapman say "... model Yasmin Le Bon bought one, proving that her taste in cars was better than her taste in husbands."

In 1992, Giorgio Nada Editore published a book about the Montreal by Luigi Giuliani (ISBN 8879110721) but this is now out of print. It is a 96-page paperback in Italian language. This volume is one of the "Cars that made History" series, some of which eventually appear in English translation, but Nada inform me that they do not have plans for an English version at present. However, Australian Alfista Malcolm Street has made an excellent translation into English of the entire text of Luigi Giuliani's book including figure captions. (Revised version, April 1999). This remarkable work, undertaken by an amateur as a part-time project while learning Italian, complements the original text and illustrations and opens the book to the wider English-language readership.

A well-illustrated 33-page booklet on the Alfa Romeo Montreal was published by De Agostini in the series "100 Anni di Italia in Automobile". In addition to an article on the Montreal "Vera opera d'arte" (A True Work of Art), the publication contains a brief review of some of the events of 1973 and a very short biography of the Montreal's mechanical design engineer, the late Giuseppe Busso.

In January 1992 Giorgio Nada Editore published the well-illustrated 416-page book "Bertone" by Luciano Greggio, ISBN 8879110667, Italian/English text, ITL 180,000. This book is now out of print.

A beautifully illustrated "Nuccio Bertone Portfolio" was published in English and Italian as a supplement to the September-October 1989 edition (Vol. 29, No. 5) of the periodical "La Manovella e Ruote a Raggi". Copies may still be obtainable from Carrozzeria Bertone.

A 1972 Montreal is one of the 12 cars featured in "alfazioso" by Gianfilippo Salvetti, published in November 1998 by Fucina Edizioni (Italian and English text, ITL 80,000). The car illustrated (AR1425697) has been part of the Alfa Blue Team since November 1994.

Additional illustrations of Montreal bodies being fabricated at the Bertone plant at Caselle and painted and trimmed at Grugliasco were published in "Style Auto, Architettura della Carrozzeria", No. 30, January-February 1972. Shrink-wrapped back numbers of the hardcover English text version of this issue were available from La Libreria dell'Automobile for ITL 12,000 but are now difficult to find at a reasonable price. The English translation is mediocre but the Italian text version is no longer available. This issue of the periodical contains as an insert a folded 48 x 69 cm sheet reproducing a set of 1:10 scale Alfa Romeo drawings on one side and Bertone drawings on the other. The two-colour Alfa Romeo drawings include three elevations and a plan of the Montreal unitary chassis with engine, drive train and suspension. Here is an example of part of the side elevation showing the engine. The Bertone black-and-white drawings show the corresponding views of the Montreal body with numerous profiles. Here is an example of the rear part of the side elevation.

Luigi Fusi ("All Alfa Romeo cars from 1910", 3rd edition published in 1978 by Emmeti Grafica s.a.s., Milan) gives a short description of the Montreal on pp. 705-710.

A pink Montreal was chosen as the front cover illustration for Volume 5 "Transportation by land and sea" of the set of popular science books ("Shijiekepuhualang") published in Chinese by Zhe Jiang Educational Press in June 1997.

The entertaining and informative "Alfa Romeo Owner's Bible" by the late Pat Braden, ISBN 0837607078, published in 1994 by Robert Bentley, Cambridge, Massachusetts, although containing few specific references to the Montreal, contains a great deal of relevant material. It is available from automobile bookshops everywhere. Pat's book "Alfa Romeo Giulia: History and Restoration", ISBN 0879385294, published in 1991 by Motorbooks International, Osceola, Wisconsin, also includes a few pages on the Montreal. Copies are available from dealers in out-of-print books and a new revised edition should be published shortly.

Here are a few other links to websites for books, manuals, magazines, the Montreal forum and the Alfa Digest:

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English reviews

A selection of magazine reviews in English:

The Road & Track articles are available in "Road & Track on Alfa Romeo, 1971-1976", ISBN 0-946-489-78-5, published in 1989 by Brooklands Books, Cobham, Surrey, UK. Back numbers of many of the other magazines are still available from their publishers, with the exception of "Motor", "Thoroughbred & Classic Cars" and the February 1989 edition of "Classic and Sports Car" (which has only a very short article).

A technical analysis of the first T33 by Karl Ludvigsen was published in Road & Track, August 1967. "Engineering Victory", a biography by Winston Goodfellow of T33 Project Manager Carlo Chiti, was published in the Nov/Dec 1996 edition of Vintage Motorsport. (Carlo Chiti died at the age of 69 in July 1994). The Montreal production version of the T33 engine was developed by the team of Orazio Satta Puliga, to whom the Alfa Romeo Museum at Arese is now dedicated, and particularly by his assistant Giuseppe Busso.

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Other reviews

A selection of magazine reviews in French:

... in Italian: "L'Uomo Segreto", a biography of Montreal stylist Marcello Gandini, was published in the Dec 1987/Jan 1988 edition of AutoIn Vogue.

... in German:

... in Dutch: ... in Greek: ... in Danish: ... in Finnish: ... in Japanese:

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Owner manuals

In 1971 Alfa Romeo's Direzione Assistenza (DIASS) published 87-page Montreal owner manuals in the following languages:

Minor differences will be found as a result of editing which occurred between the publication of the various editions. For example, a pump bleed screw was added to the cooling system diagram on p. 57 of the December 1971 English version, altering system component references 16, 17 and adding 18. But the associated text was not fully updated, so that block drain plug 18 is referred to in the draining instructions as 17 (which is now the pump itself). An error in the tolerance of the distributor contact-breaker gap (which should be ±0.03 mm) in the Italian and English owner manuals was corrected in the French and German versions.

In 1971 the Italian version of the Montreal owner manual could be purchased for USD 2.50. Today originals in mint condition fetch over USD 100. Reproductions of the English version are available from Mercian Manuals for GBP 16.76. The reproduction is of good quality apart from the wiring diagram, which has been scaled down by 65%, making the wire gauge and cable colour codes largely illegible. A reproduction manual can also be supplied for USD 44.95 by Voss Motors. It is of somewhat poorer quality.

A CD-ROM with a scan of the French owner manual can be supplied by Raoul Helfen.

User instructions for the optional air conditioning system were given in supplementary leaflets published in early 1972 (Publication No. 1905, 5500 printed, for the Italian version; No. 1907, 2000 printed, for the English version; No. 1908, 3000 printed, for the German version). A 17-page "Air Conditioning System" manual (Publication No. 1969, 1000 printed in October 1972) gives general directions for checking and recharging the system which are applicable to the units fitted to the Montreal, 2000 and Alfetta.

Supplements to the Montreal owner manuals indicating how to install a radio were published in Italian (Publication No. 1823, 6/71, 5000 printed), French (Publication No. 1850, 11/71, 3000 printed), English (Publication No. 1851, 12/71, 1600 printed) and German (Publication No. 1852, 10/71, 2800 printed).

The Montreal owner documents were supplied in a synthetic pouch on which "Alfa Romeo" is printed in gilt lettering of mediocre quality.

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Service carnet

Alfa Romeo Montreal service carnets were printed in several languages (Libretto di Servizio, Service Coupon Book, Carnet de Service, Kundendienst Scheckheft) by Arti Grafiche Milanesi in March-June 1971. A revised version was printed in March 1972. These little carnets contained the following items:

A pocket for keeping the service carnet is attached to the side wall of the cabin forward of the passenger door. Reproduction pockets and carnets can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti.

The regular service operations are indicated in the Montreal Owner Manuals. 18-page booklets "Montreal: Directions for carrying out free service coupons A and B and the chargeable coupons" ("Montreal: Istruzioni per l'esecuzione dei buoni A e B e dei tagliandi chilometrici del libretto di servizio", DIASS No. 1788, 11/71, 1500 printed, for the Italian version) were supplied to Alfa Romeo dealers in 1971.

Booklets listing the standard repair times for service operations were produced in several languages (e.g., "Tempario Vetture Alfa Romeo Montreal", DIASS No. 2165, 12/73, Italian, 2500 printed; "Temps de Travail", DIASS No. 2166, 12/73, French, 1300 printed; "Reperatur Richtzeiten", 12/73, German, 1500 printed). The times allowed for upgrade work were indicated in the relevant Information Sheets.

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Service manuals

Unlike some later models (such as the 119 Series), Alfa Romeo did not publish a complete "Workshop Manual" for the Montreal, but the usual "Characteristics, inspection specifications and overhaul directions" document (62 pages) was produced for the car in several languages. The Italian version is DIASS No. 1695 - January/1971 (1000 printed); the English version is DIASS Publication No. 1785 - June/1971 (1000 printed); the French version DIASS No. 1784 - October/1971 (1000 printed); the German version DIASS No. 1786 - October/1971 (1000 printed). Additional technical and service information for some of the component systems of the vehicle was published in several languages in a number of separate documents (e.g., "Montreal: Capacitor discharge transistorized ignition", DIASS No. 1643 for the English version; "Montreal: L'allumage électronique à condensateur", DIASS No. 1642 for the French version, both published in April 1971).

A Montreal "Shop Manual" has been compiled by Mercian Manuals which comprises a collection of reproductions of the most relevant of these separate documents. It is available directly from Mercian Manuals (GBP 23.45) or via suppliers such as Motor Books C&SC (GBP 24.95), Mill House Books (GBP 25.95), EWA Cars (USD 44.10) or Voss Motors (USD 49.95). This compendium contains copies of the following material:

ZF published a 35-page English language Assembly, maintenance and operating instructions manual (9MB PDF file) for the Montreal's S 5-18/3 Synchroma Gearbox. Original manuals (Ref 1255 751 101) may still be available from some national service stations of ZF Friedrichshafen AG. Alfa Romeo's 44-page repair manual for the gearbox was published in several languages (DIASS No. 1853 for the Italian version - September 1972, DIASS No. 1854 for the French version - February 1974, DIASS No. 1856 for the German version - August 1973).

A 39-page "Alfa Romeo Spica Fuel Injection Shop Manual", ISBN 0-87938-290-2, was published in 1988 by Motorbooks International Publishers & Wholesalers Inc, PO Box 2, 729 Prospect Avenue, Osceola, WI 54020, USA. It is now out of print. Tests, adjustments, regular maintenance and troubleshooting are covered, but the information is only partly applicable to the Montreal, and this is not a manual for overhauling or rebuilding the injection pump.

More comprehensive information on the Spica fuel injection system is available in the Owners Technical Notes Series published by the US Alfa Romeo Owners Club. The 171-page dossier, which was edited by the late Fred Di Matteo and John Hertzman, is available for USD 20 (+ postage) from the Club Librarian, Jim Neill. It can be supplied to non-members of AROC. Jim can also supply back issues of the AROC "Alfa Owner" carrying articles by Joe Benson on "Opening the injection pump". Part 1 "Familiarization" was published in the April 1978 issue (Vol. 21, No. 4) and Part 2 "Repairs and maintenance" in the May 1978 issue (Vol. 21, No. 5).

When consulting documentation for 4-cylinder Spica injectors, note that references to the long link concern the short link on Montreal pumps, which have a more complex mechanism for operating the throttle butterflies. The Spica TA section on this website gives the setup parameters for Montreal injectors.

A 44-page Italian language booklet on the Montreal Spica injection system has been compiled from Alfa Romeo documents by Giorgio Penatti, 14 Via Dei Mille, I-20059 Vimercate (MI), Italy. Tel/Fax. (+39) 039 6854547.

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Parts catalogues

The Alfa Romeo Montreal spare parts catalogue is DIASS Publication No. 1645 - March/1971 (2500 printed), revised version 1645/R1 - February/1975 (500 printed). The catalogue, which runs to 530 pages, contains exploded views of the subassemblies and lists almost all the components which were assigned separate Part Nos. Here is an example page from the catalogue. The parts are identified in Italian, French, English, German and Spanish and the designations of external suppliers (ATE, Bertone, Bosch, Carello, Fispa, Jaeger, Marelli, Spica, ZF, etc) are also given where appropriate. The catalogue comprises mechanical, electrical and coachwork sections and a numerical index.

A number of revised tables were introduced in September 1973 and the revised sheets were supplied to Alfa Romeo dealers to allow their copies of the March 1971 catalogue to be updated. A Revision Index (Page 4/1 and Page 4/2) was printed, but 9-1973 versions of the catalogue pages which I have highlighted in yellow in the Index have so far not been found! Finally the revised parts catalogue was printed in February 1975.

In 1971, the spare parts catalogue was sold for USD 12. As examples of pricing, "Revues Automobiles Librairie" in Paris offered a photocopy of all the sections for FRF 300, while in recent years originals were sold at the Bern and Fribourg OTMs for CHF 100.

The Montreal air conditioner parts catalogue (DIASS Publication No. 2125) is a separate 21-page document with its own numerical index. The first edition was published in December 1973 and a revised version (2125/R1) in September 1974. A copy of the air conditioner parts catalogue is included with the Mercian "Shop Manual" and some reproduction Montreal parts catalogues.

A "Performance Options" catalogue for 105-series cars was published by Alfa Romeo Inc, Newark NJ, USA. (Publication No. 104, revisions from November 1971 to February 1977). The catalogue lists numerous performance parts, some standard and others special production, which were normally stocked in the ARI parts centres during the 1970s. A special racing version (105.64.04.030.99) of the Montreal Spica pump is listed, together with the Autodelta cylinder heads (105.55.01.046.99 right, 105.55.01.053.99 left) and alternative 670 g connecting rods (105.59.02.020.01). Other references to the Montreal concern the use of Montreal parts, such as the Bosch CD ignition system and the differential sump, on other 105-series cars. Reproductions of the catalogue may be purchased from the AROC Technical Library (Jim Neill) for USD 20 plus shipping (USD 25 within the US).

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CD-ROMs

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Parts cross-referencing

Spare parts procurement for the Montreal, of which fewer than 4000 were produced, can be substantially more difficult than for more popular classic cars. Contrary to general belief very few parts are common to both the Montreal and the Giulia. When procuring drive and suspension parts be aware that some Montreal components can look the same as parts for 4-cylinder 105-series Alfa Romeo cars but are in fact made from stronger materials to support the greater loading.

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Parts suppliers

A growing number of suppliers of Montreal spare parts are opening websites, or at least handle email. Here are links to a few which are known to me, and information about new sites of other suppliers is welcome.

As with the assembly, maintenance and operating instructions manuals (1255 751 101), spare parts for the ZF S 5-18/3 gearbox can be purchased through the ZF national service station in your country. Quote gearbox assembly No. 1255 003 019 when ordering.

Bosch can supply a number of Montreal spare parts such as the ignition coils, alternator, starter motor, electric fuel pumps, radiator blower motor and windscreen wiper motor. An ESItronic (Electronic Service Information) list (RB key ALF 80) is published and these parts can be purchased through your national Bosch service organisation.

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Technical drawings

Montreal unit-construction monocoque chassis engineering layout drawings (Schema autotelaio Montreal, 26 April 1971). Graticule interval = 10 cm.

A folded 48 x 69 cm sheet reproducing the Alfa Romeo drawings at 1:10 scale was included as an insert with the January-February 1972 issue (No. 30) of "Style Auto, Architettura della Carrozzeria". The reverse side of the sheet reproduces Bertone drawings showing the corresponding views of the Montreal body with numerous profiles. Here is an example of the rear part of the side elevation. Shrink-wrapped back numbers of the hardcover English-text version of this publication were available from La Libreria dell'Automobile for EUR 9.30. Voss Motors currently offer copies for USD 49.95.

Automobile stylist Piero Stroppa, who worked with Bertone from 1965 to 1970, has created a series of illustrative drawings showing the different stages in the development of a car prototype body. Since he had collaborated with Marcello Gandini on the conception of the Montreal, he chose the production Montreal bodywork for these fine representations:

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3D models

A detailed 3D model of the Montreal has been created by Federico De Franceschi ("Fred Faster") of Ancona, Italy. The model, which was created in about 100 hours of work using Zmodeler software, is destined for eventual use in the netKar racing simulator. To meet the netKar poly-limit, Fred modelled the Montreal body by about 5100 polygons (triangles).

The Montreal model was based on the 1997 Hot Cars file card shown in the "Cards" section, supplemented by other pictures to make the skin, head and tail lights, etc. In addition to Zmodeler, the model can be rendered with better reflections and shadows etc with 3DStudio Max, by graphic designer Alessandro Piemontesi "Outrunner". It can be stretched, zoomed and rotated for viewing at any angle.

While studying automotive design at Coventry University, Karl Sanders designed a new Montreal concept as a final year project in 2008-2009. With its eyelids and slats, his 3D model is instantly recognizable as a reincarnation of Gandini's classic design.

The Alfa Romeo Montreal is one of the 1970s cars selected by NoGripRacing for the development of a free car-driving simulator called RedLine. A 3D model of the car is currently being finished, and it is intended that the simulator will be sophisticated and accurate.

Nicholas Lette, a student at Winchester College, has produced a 3D model of the Montreal using Google Sketchup. Nicholas also used the images from the Hot Cars card as blueprints to build up the basic model of the car and texture it. Once the simple low-polygon shape had been completed he added more detail, such as fenders and complex bodywork curves. Finally he added the wheels, also textured and sized using the original images.

As part of a Digital Arts and Entertainment School exam requirement, Lukas Van Daele has created an imaginative rendering of a Montreal equipped for extreme winter conditions. This 3D model is composed of 812,616 triangles, and the result (with smoothing iterations) totals 2,143,318 triangles. The 3D model, created with 3DStudio Max, was then blended with a 2D photo of the environment. Photoshop was used for the textures.

Realistic rFactor Montreals have been created by Andreas Sladek and his brother.

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Art drawings

Jennifer Taylor has made several artistic paintings of the Montreal, some of which are also available on greetings cards. These imaginative renderings reflect the brilliant psychedelic colours of the 1970s.

A black-and-white "Audrey Hepburn" drawing of the Montreal on A2 paper has been made with pencils by self-taught Russian artist Nastya Litvinkova from St Petersburg.

Marcello Gandini's splendid original concept drawing of the production Montreal is very close to the final design. The Campagnolo "turbina" wheels may not have been chosen at the time the drawing was made.

To mark the 40th anniversary of the presentation of the Alfa Romeo Montreal at the 1970 Geneva Salon, talented industrial design student Davide Varenna created a design for a modern version of the car that maintains many of the original styling clues.

Davide says, "My aim was to design the heir to one of the loveliest two-seaters ever created in Arese. One of the goals I set myself from the start, which I was working on my research sketches, was to include a number of characteristic elements of the original car (such as the NACA duct on the bonnet and the six slits in the side), to make the link immediately obvious. Because I was fascinated by its proportions and characteristic aggressive look, I tried to design a car with the same strong impact, while I drastically modified its features to adapt them to the changes that have taken place in car styling in the last 40 years.

The front plays an important role in recreating the look of the original car, with its delicate, cutting headlights, which are emphasised by the small air intake just above them. This is the first reference to the original Montreal: instead of the "lid" that covered the upper part of the headlights, there are now two slits which continue down to the lower part of the front, after a sharp edge level with the wheel arch rib. Unlike the latest Alfas, the shield has been lowered to adapt to the horizontal development of the front view, which is also underlined by the size of the bumpers which convey great dynamism. The profile of the new Montreal is very clean, with the long front rib that smoothly guides the eye to the rear end with its muscular shoulders that come to a sudden close in the cut-off tail.

Here we find other references to the past, like the dual central exhaust pipes, "Alfa Romeo" written in upper case letters and the dark strip that makes the car wider, emphasising its sportiness. The delicate light clusters underline the family resemblance with other Alfa models, but in a way also the lines of a Lamborghini, just as the Montreal of the past revealed elements of the Miura, also designed by Marcello Gandini. This is a car that returns with the same spirit as its ancestor and with the ambition to relaunch the Italian brand in America, thanks to a powerful V8 engine (just like the earlier Montreal), plenty of muscle and a name that clearly conjures up the new world."

Davide's drawings are made using both freehand and digital techniques. First with pens, pencils and markers, and then with Photoshop to colour and improve the sketches. In 2010 his Alfa Montreal design was exhibited at the Geneva Salon and the Novegro Exhibition Center in Milan.

In 1970 Bruno Belli created a number of different versions of a very detailed cutaway drawing of the Montreal which were published in "Quattroruote", "Autocar", "Moteurs" and "The Cutaway Collection". Here is a larger version (1.3M) scaled for an A3 printer.

Each year the international autotechnical bureau Olyslager Organisation B.V., Amersfoort, The Netherlands, commissions one artist's rendering of a famous automobile. In 1996 the Alfa Romeo Montreal was featured in a rendering by A.P. van den Hoek. Olyslager renderings are not for sale.

Andrea Militello, a professional transportation designer from Luxembourg who works for the IDEA Institute in Turin, has used modern graphics tools to make an artistic representation.

Young Italian artist and designer Renato Verzaro has made several drawings of the Montreal using different techniques such as acrylic on canvas.

"Faster than the wind" could be the English title of a computer art interpretation of the Alfa Romeo Montreal by Manfred Kopp.

Steffen Imhof has created an original acrylic on canvas portrayal of the Montreal which is available for EUR 2800. He can supply 80x80 cm prints on canvas for EUR 480 each.

A drawing of a green Montreal figured on No. 6 of a set of six collector cards of "Classic Alfa Romeo Models" (Ref. 01277 632174) issued by Golden Era in 1997.

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Calendar art

A 2008 Alfa Romeo calendar featuring 8-cylinder cars includes 6 prints of paintings by Michele Leonello of the company's Centro Stile. The final vehicle presented in the illustrious lineage preceding the 8C Competizione is the Alfa Romeo Montreal. While these paintings are not for sale, Michele can supply artwork of several other cars and accept private commissions.

The 44.5 x 33.5cm Alfa Romeo 2010 calendar by Ruoteclassiche features the Montreal on the page for November. The calendar was supplied with the December 2009 issue of Ruoteclassiche magazine.

The 1995 Alfa Romeo Calendar featured an artistic Montreal photomontage for the months September-October. The photography was by Aldo Poggi with art direction by Cipidue of Milan. The 60 x 40 cm original, printed by Grafiche Calderini of Bologna, is of splendid quality and merits conservation and framing.

A black Montreal was featured in the Paul Oxman Legendary Sportscars calendar for 2005.

Rob Jones has produced an attractive perpetual calendar which is entirely devoted to the Montreal. The calendar features illustrations of cars of Montreal Forum members in a wide range of different colours. It is available for GBP 10 plus postage (GBP 1.50 to Europe, GBP 3.00 to USA, GBP 3.50 to Australia) from The Creative Workshop, The Barn, 2 Stonald Road, Whittlesey PE7 1RE, United Kingdom. (Tel: +44 1733 350081, Fax: +44 1733 351181).

The Montreal is also featured on the January page of the 1998 "Roaring Seventies" calendar (DEM 85) published by Kontor 11 Grafik-Design, Deichstrasse 29, D-20459 Hamburg, Germany.

The 50x70 cm 2003 "Emozioni" Alfa Romeo Art Calendar by Steffen Imhof features the Montreal on the February page and the front cover. It costs EUR 75 plus shipping.

A Shell calendar for 1993 featured the Montreal on the page for September.

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Brochures

CBC in Milan produced artistic 20/24-page Montreal sales brochures for Alfa Romeo in Dutch, English, French, German and Italian which are now collector's items. These well-illustrated documents include several views of an early vehicle including an 83 cm wide 3-page spread foldout. Sectional drawings of several major components of the car are included as well as internal views of the cabin. The photography in all the brochures was the work of G. Jung and Michele Saluzzo.

The somewhat rarer earliest versions, dated December 1970, had illustrations relating the Montreal to its Type 33/2 Sport-proto origin (The Montreal's heart is that of the "33") and showed an unmatriculated vehicle without front spoiler. One illustration apparently shows a RHD Montreal but as no such vehicle had been built in 1970 this is probably due to lateral inversion of the photograph to suit the page layout. In a later ('R') revision of the brochure (usually dated February 1973 or March 1974) some of the photography was modified, the Type 33 illustrations were removed, and the Montreal was shown in a 2-page spread with a spoiler, an Italian export registration and the red and blue/white chequered Bertone emblem.

The December 1970 brochures were printed on heavy stock by Stampa STIEM of San Donato Milanese. The later versions were produced by a variety of printers including Stampa A.G. Grisetti s.r.l., Stampa Ripalta - Milano and Stampa Amilcare Pizzi S.p.A. - Cinisello Balsamo (Milano).

The Montreal was also illustrated in colour brochures covering the range of models offered by national importers such as Alfa Romeo Svenska AB in Sweden and Alfa Romeo (G.B.) Ltd in the UK. In 1975, common illustrations were adopted for the English brochure, the French/Belgian brochure and the German brochure, only the language of the text being changed. All the brochures were printed in France, and even the English version shows a LHD Montreal.

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Advertising

When the preproduction Montreal was presented to the public, Alfa Romeo released a press kit entitled "Alfa Romeo Montreal, Salon de Genève 1970". This small dossier, which can still be found with auto documentation vendors, contained in a brown folder nine A4 sheets describing the merits and technical specifications of the vehicle and a set of black-and-white photographs of it. The studio photography and location shots (probably the work of renowned Milan photographer Michele Saluzzo) were of a high standard; the English translation of the text was not.

On the day (12 March 1970) that the Geneva Salon opened to the public, Alfa Romeo Inc, Newark NJ, USA, released a US version of the press kit (PR-70-6) with a 2-page introduction and 4-page description of the Montreal engine, including specifications in imperial units. The introduction contained the remark "It is interesting to note that these headlights are in accordance with U.S.A. height from ground specifications".

Bertone issued their own shorter Montreal press release with several black-and-white photographs showing different views of an early production vehicle with no front spoiler. The Alfa Romeo Montreal coachwork was also featured in advertisements for Bertone themselves. Additional outdoor shots showed the Montreal in natural and stately home settings.

While the Montreal was frequently reviewed by the specialist press during the early 1970's, Alfa Romeo published rather few advertising illustrations for it. The slogan "A dream car come true" was used in early text advertisements. Following the appearance of a Montreal at the London Motor Show at Earls Court in October 1970, a Thomson & Taylor advertisement suggested that the car was available immediately. However, deliveries to customers did not start until well into 1971.

Alfa Romeo's subsidiary in Germany published some creative advertising:

A 1972 advertisement belittled the safety claims of rival car manufacturers and stated that there are only good and not-so-good vehicles, a good automobile being a safe one.

In France, Alfa Romeo advertised the Montreal with much latin poetry and described it as a "Man's machine", quite the opposite of a boy racer's cabriolet.

Alfa Romeo in Switzerland described the car in somewhat less lyrical terms as one of the best things that can be obtained for money. The bottom line extols the gentleman's GT concept: "An extraordinary sports car doesn't have to be a rude fire-spitting monster".

Some dealer advertisements were also published in England and Germany but almost all such publicity ceased in 1975. In 1972 one German agent offered a DEM 37,000 package deal of an Alfa Romeo Montreal and a Honda CB750 motorcycle as "Something Extraordinary for Men". The Montreal was no longer advertised at the Geneva salons in 1976 and 1977 and, in order to liquidate remaining stock, Swiss agents were obliged to take delivery of a small number of the vehicles to qualify for their quota of more popular Alfa Romeo models.

A number of enlargements of original Alfa Romeo Montreal advertisements are now available as A3 black-and-white or colour posters.

A Montreal in custom rainbow livery was acquired by a large Canadian company, Macdonald of Montreal, and featured with elegant Parisian models in a cigarette advertising programme. The Montreal image was also used to promote products ranging from Italian shoes (Calzaturificio Tradate, Via Roma, Turin, late 1967) to the Alfasud TI ("De la Montréal à l'Alfasud TI: Une tradition de race"). A Montreal was featured on the front cover of the Blaupunkt autoradio catalogue for 1987.

In 1979 UK Virgin used a "Swindle" Montreal to promote the Sex Pistols record album "The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle". The Montreal appears on the gatefold sleeve of the double-LP album. (Note that two versions of this album were produced). It does not appear in the movie of the same name, although the movie review published by Mojo Magazine in June 2002 does include an illustration of a prowling Sue Catwoman.

More recently, the Montreal image has been used in advertisements for classic car insurance. In August 2003 a professional photographer shot Leopold Hamberger with his Montreal for an advertisement for SIP Scootershop, a major German supplier of spare and tuning parts for motor scooters from all decades. They chose the Montreal over a Porsche 912 to evoke a certain lifestyle and performance.

"This website participates in the Amazon Associates Programmes, affiliate advertising programmes designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com, Amazon.co.uk, Amazon.de, Amazon.fr, Amazon.ca and Amazon.it"

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Test run

In 1972 two non-professional drivers put the Montreal's grand touring qualities to the test for Quattroruote by a trans-European run from the Mediterranean to the Baltic sea. They drove their Montreal from Reggio Calabria in the south of Italy to Lubeck in the north of Germany in less than 21 hours, including all stops and the Italian, Austrian and German border crossings. The 2574 km itinerary followed the Brenner and then Innsbruck, Münich, Nuremberg, Wurzburg, Kassel, Hannover and Hamburg to Lubeck. Average fuel consumption for the run was reported to be 17.8 litres per 100 km.

The test run was reported in detail in "Ci vediamo stasera a Lubecca", Quattroruote, July 1972.

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Movies

The Montreal has appeared in a few cinema films, such as "The Destructors" (also called "The Marseille Contract", or "Fluchtpunkt Marseille" for the German version) produced in 1974 by Kettledrum Films/PECF and featuring Michael Caine and Anthony Quinn. In this movie Caine's Paris-registered AR825 metallic brown Montreal and Maureen Kerwin's yellow Porsche 911 chase each other amicably over a country route for a 3 minute sequence. The 911, which has automatic transmission, appears with its targa top in place during the chase and without it on arrival. The movie poster illustrated a Miura (which does not appear in the film) instead of the Montreal.

The movie was released on NTSC/VHS cassette by Orion Pictures Corp as a Vestron Video (VA 4064). Used tapes are readily available from Amazon Marketplace sellers for around USD 2.50 up. A PAL/VHS version by Warner Bros. (PEV 11526) with The Marseille Contract title was released in 1986. In his autobiography, Caine admitted that he did this film "for convenience rather than quality", since he wanted to spend some time in the south of France with his wife and their newborn daughter Natasha.

Playing a minor role as the bizarre Doctor Lartigue, Charles Aznavour drives a Montreal somewhat recklessly in a very short sequence in Claude Chabrol's 1976 movie "Folies Bourgeoises". The Montreal appears briefly 1h 8m into the movie and the main sequence is at about 1h 30m from the start. This is not one of Chabrol's best productions but it is available on DVD, and VHS cassettes (SECAM) of the movie can also be found on the second-hand French market. A VHS NTSC cassette of the English version ("Twist") was released by U.S.A. Home Video. VHS PAL cassettes of the German version "Die Verrückten Reichen" are readily available from Amazon suppliers, while the Italian version "Pazzi Borghesi" is rarer.

A white Montreal appears in the Giovanni Grimaldi comedy movie "Il Magnate", released in 1973 and featuring Lando Buzzanca, Rosanna Schiaffino and Jean-Pierre Cassel. The Italian language movie is available on DVD.

A red Montreal appears very briefly indeed in "True Lies", produced in 1994 by Lightstorm Entertainment/Twentieth Century-Fox and featuring Arnold Schwarzenegger and Jamie Lee Curtis. The Montreal sighting occurs 12m 29s into the video from the origin of the DVD version. (5.6 sec mpeg video clip, 490 KBytes).

A Montreal appears as a background vehicle in "Tony Arzenta" (also known as "Big Guns", "No Way Out" and "Grands Fusils" for the French version), produced in 1973 by Adel Productions, Lira Films and Mondial Televisione Film and featuring Alain Delon.

The orange 1971 Montreal of Michael Murphy appears in the movie "Machete", produced by Overnight Films in Austin, Texas. The film was released in 2010.

A Montreal appears on the streets of Budapest in the Hungarian-made summer-comedy TV movie "Illetlenek" (The Indecents), even though the film was shot in 1977 during the communist period.

The Montreal gets only a brief shot in the video "Alfa Romeo: La Storia", part of the "Motori Nella Leggenda" series produced by Magnex.

MovieCars, a division of Devin International, can provide a Montreal for movie or television episodes.

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Music

In May 2014 the Danish group Elektrojazz released a groove jazz tribute to the greatest cars of the seventies. In order to pick the right cars for their "Cars" album, they ran a poll on their website, and the Montreal was voted among the top ten. The Montreal with Alice is featured on the CD cover, and the 5m35 track "Alfabivalence" is dedicated to the car. The press release reads "The song is a tribute to the amazing-looking Alfa Romeo Montreal. It is a soft soul-jazz tune, made for stylish downtown Monaco cruising in one of the prettiest Alfas ever made."

A Montreal appeared in a brief promotional video for the release of the single "Benvenuto" by Italian singer-songwriter Laura Pausini in September 2011.

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Monti girls

In the stylish seventies the graceful lines of the Alfa Romeo Montreal were a symbol of elegance and beauty so it was natural that many publicity photographs of the car were taken with attractive lady models. Here is a small selection:

More recent Monti Girls:

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TV

The Montreal of Daniel Brosch was featured in a short video portrait made by German Oldtimer-TV in July 2009.

The German TV channel VOX highlighted the Alfa Romeo Montreal in the classic car feature in its "Auto Motor und Sport TV" series on 28 September 1997. In addition to numerous action and detail shots of Ludwigshafen-registered Montreal LU-R900, the programme included classic footage of Type 33 Sport-proto racing and of the Montreal World Expo in 1967.

Several action shots of Richard Anderson's Montreal were included in the "Faszination Oldtimer" coverage of the 1997 Classic Adelaide rally broadcast by DSF on 17 February 1998 (plus subsequent repeats). Montreal shots appear at 6, 8 and 16 minutes into the report on this international event, which occupies the second half of the 55-minute programme. VHS/PAL Video cassettes of the entire programme (No. 37) are available for DEM 30 plus shipping. Richard was placed 3rd in the Classic Adelaide event in November 1998 and some briefer shots of his car were included in DSF Faszination Oldtimer No. 63, broadcast on 29 March 1999. The documentary film has been released to European cable TV by Dieter Ritter, the German entrant from the Daimler-Benz museum. Richard Anderson's Montreal again achieved 3rd place in the Classic Adelaide rally in 1999 and 2000 and 7th place in the 2001 event.

A Montreal made a brief appearance in Episode 14 of the long-running German TV-Series "Derrick". This series was exported to many other countries.

The Montreal was one of the cars featured in the 1970 episode of the "Men and Motors" Classic Car Years series broadcast on several European TV channels, including Astra 2A (transponder 37) on 11 December 2005. In the broadcast, UK owner Rob Jones gives his opinion of the car.

The Milan-based video production company Macok Cineservizi is currently working on a 15-episode series called "Top Cars" which will feature the Alfa Romeo Montreal in Volume 4. The series will be available on VHS cassettes for home use through local distributors.

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Street View

As camera cars scan more of our streets, Montreal shots should appear on Google Street View. Details of new sightings are most welcome!

(Note that it is often necessary to pan the views to bring the Montreals into sight)

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Cartoons

Michel Vaillant drives a race version of the Alfa Romeo Montreal in the Jean Graton comic strip album "San Francisco Circus" (March 1976, Editions du Lombard, Brussels, ISBN 2205009915). This album was reprinted in May 1993, June 1995 and September 1998 and is available through bookshops (ISBN 2803600722) for about FRF 60. The original book was unnumbered and the reprints carry the Album No. 29. It was one of the last in the Michel Vaillant series to be published by Le Lombard before Jean Graton opened his own publishing house in 1982. Guido Michael in Germany has made a one-off 1/43 model of the car which is in the collection of Luc Colemont.

A Montreal appears in one image (on page 42) of the Diabolik comic strip album No. 516, "Nessuno Risponde" by Angela and Luciana Giussani. The 132-page Italian paperback album (ISSN 1124-0466) was reprinted by Astorina S.r.l. of Milan on 17 June 2004.

The Montreal has also appeared in some cartoon strips such as "Of Hooves & Horsepower" (Inset text: "And all 230 horsepower are coiled in the slinky flanks of a 1971 Alfa Romeo Montreal"), "A Chip off the Ol' Block (105 Series)" and "Hindsight in the Front Row". These strips are included in "Rust & Wrinkles - Vol. 1, A Boy & His Dragon", a delightful 48-page booklet of philosophy and humour by Joe Ferreira (Joe King). An expanded 64-page 15th-anniversary edition, published in 2006, is available from the author for $10 plus shipping. The Montreal also appears in "The Gate Keeper" in "Route Sixty-Six".

Two happy foxes drive a yellow Montreal in Richard Scarry's book for children "Cars and Trucks and Things That Go", published by Golden Press in September 1974 and reprinted in May 1997 (ISBN 0307157857).

Other artists like Rens have made cute cartoon sketches of the Montreal and even Donald Duck has had a spin in the vehicle as a passenger. (Driver: "Does your stomach feel OK at 200 km/h?" Donald: "I dunno, I can't feel anything any more!").

Richard Morris can supply a framed cartoon sketch of the Montreal, customised with the finish, wheels, badges and registration plate of the purchaser's own car. The price is GBP 25.

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Posters

Wallwerks are currently offering an unusual Alfa Romeo Montreal poster (Ref WWAR-29L) by Jeff Dorgay. The 27" x 35" Giclee print on matte stock costs USD 70.

Auto Trend Graphics offer a Montreal poster in size 18" x 24" (Ref. AT-9925-A) for USD 44.95 or size 24" x 36" (Ref. AT-9925-B) for USD 49.95.

In 1993 Arti Grafiche Ricordi in Milan published a 68 x 98 cm colour poster (Ref. 2450/3291) designed by F. Carrega featuring a selection of 23 Alfa Romeo vehicles from 1914 to 1992. The central illustration is of an Alfa Romeo Montreal. The illustration is subtitled "1967 - Montreal Expo - 2000 cc." although it clearly shows a post-1970 2593 cc. production vehicle fitted with the front spoiler and a non-original rear view mirror.

On the other hand another large poster entitled "Alfa Romeo: The Road Cars" published by SIGEM, Officine Grafiche, Modena, illustrates the Expo 67 show car with the caption "Montreal: Produzione anno 1970".

Vintage Ad Gallery offer a number of A3 colour posters reproduced from original display advertisements for the Montreal which were published by Alfa Romeo subsidiaries in different countries, including Germany (Ref. AR34) (English translation: "The most beautiful connection between 2 points is an Alfa Romeo") and French-speaking Switzerland (Ref. AR37). The illustration of the Montreal production line in the latter is from "Style Auto". In a later version (Ref. AR45) it was replaced by a general view of the vehicle. The Montreal also appears in a poster advertisement for the Alfasud TI (Ref. AR41) ("De la Montréal à l'Alfasud TI: Une tradition de race"). The posters are priced at GBP 4 each (3 for GBP 10) from show stands or GBP 5 each including postage and packing.

In August 1971 Alfa Romeo produced a 98.5 x 70 cm German poster (Publication No. 1763, 900 printed) featuring a coloured version of the Montreal fuel system operating diagram.

Alfa Romeo also published a number of Workshop Posters (P.6.0015/xx) which could be purchased by dealers. The posters, which were catalogued as Special Tools, illustrated a range of topics from "Diagnosi freni" to "Elettricisti". Their number increased from 21 in 1971 to 31 in 1974, when they were sold for ITL 12,200 - 12,800 each. A uniform price of ITL 15,850 was practised in 1975. These posters were available with Italian wording only.

In March 1983 Nuova Alfieri & Lacroix SpA in Settimo Milanese produced a 48 x 66 cm recto-verso colour brochure/poster entitled "Alfa Romeo - The Historical Museum". The Montreal prototype (with Sprint GT wheels) is featured at the head of the "Line and Technique" section.

A large poster (137.5 x 200 cm) of the Alfa Romeo Montreal was printed in Italy by Fattorini.

Transport Source Books Ltd published a print entitled "1971 Alfa Romeo Montreal" as part of "The Cutaway Collection". It appears to be a reproduction of the drawings initially made by Bruno Belli for "Quattroruote" in 1970 and also published in "Autocar" on 10 December 1970.

Around 1975 Goodrich Tyres produced a 90 x 135 cm Dutch poster with a drawing based on a Montreal.

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Cards

Some of the artistic paintings of the Montreal by Jennifer Taylor are also available on greetings cards. These imaginative renderings reflect the brilliant psychedelic colours of the 1970s.

In 1997 Hot Cars issued a well-illustrated 23 x 40 cm double-sided file card on the Alfa Romeo Montreal as part of their "All Time Greats" series (Group 5, No. 25).

In 1978 Edito-Service S.A. in Geneva published a series of collector's cards including No. 1627341-01 featuring the Alfa Romeo Montreal, "La voiture de rêve de l'Exposition universelle de Montréal". The Montreal illustrated is a Geneva-registered vehicle photographed by P.-Y. Dhinaut.

A photograph of a metallic green Montreal by Neill Bruce was featured on later cards published by Edito-Service S.A. in 1992. These were part of a large series including other marques which were published through various channels in different languages such as English and German. The latter card claims "Der von Bertone entworfene Montreal ist nach wie vor das gesuchteste Luxusmodell von Alfa Romeo". (The Bertone-styled Montreal is still the most sought-after Alfa Romeo luxury model).

The Montreal has also been featured on a number of playing cards for the set-collection games Top Trumps, Ace Trump and Quartet, some carrying promotional messages. Swiss manufacturer Suchard issued a French Montreal card for their Express chocolates. The collection of Felix Neumaier also includes a Bielefelder Spielkarten card from a traffic vehicle series in Italian. Wiggins Teape (Stationery) Ltd of Chadwell Heath, Romford, UK, distributed an English version of the same card in a Sportscars set by Ace Trump Game (No. 7647/5). This "card game for collectors" was made in Germany and copyrighted by Altenburg-Stralsunder, 7022 Leinfelden/Stuttgart.

Both English and German versions of Montreal cards for Top Trumps were published, including some in landscape format as an alternative to the usual portrait format. The Montreal was chosen for the cover card of the sportscar quartet set (No. 52522) published by F.X. Schmid of Munich. In 2001, as part of their 147 promotion, Alfa Romeo in Germany issued a new "Belle Macchine" quartet pack in which the Montreal is one of the "Atemberaubende Modelle" (breathtaking models) featured.

A drawing of a green Montreal figured on No. 6 of a set of six collector cards of "Classic Alfa Romeo Models" (Ref. 01277 632174) issued by Golden Era in 1997. A green Montreal also appeared on a card by Van Rijkom.

Hallmark published a Dutch birthday card featuring the Montreal.

An Alfa Romeo Montreal collector's card was issued by "The Victor" comic as one of their "Star Cars of 1971" series.

In 1991, Edizioni "Il Fiorino", C.P. 517, Modena, Italy, (Tel. 059-210063), produced a postcard with a picture of the Expo '67 prototype Montreal. The text on the reverse side gives the year of production as 1970 and states that the car had a 200 bhp 90 deg V8 engine of displacement 1593 cc!

The Expo '67 prototype Montreal was also featured on a publicity postcard for the "Autostyle 93" salon held in Milan from 26 June to 4 July 1993.

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Stickers

The Montreal bodywork carries a number of stickers indicating the vehicle type, paint finish, etc. The largest of these decals, of which there are several different variants, carries the list of recommended lubricants and was fixed to the inside of the bonnet. In addition, several of the components carry stickers indicating the name of their manufacturer or safety warnings. Since the stickers can deteriorate with age, a comprehensive set of self-adhesive reproductions has been produced by Dirk & Hannelore Nehme. The stickers can be purchased individually or as a complete set for EUR 40 plus postage. The reproduction anodised aluminium finish plates, which cost EUR 6 each, are supplied imprinted with the appropriate paint code for the vehicle. The green sticker for 10565 RHD cars is available as part of the set, or separately for EUR 5.

In 1982 Arnoldo Mondadori Editore published a 24-page album entitled "Una leggenda chiamata Alfa Romeo" (A legend called Alfa Romeo) with a 51 x 57 cm companion sheet of self-adhesive illustrative stickers in colour. No. 79 features the 1967 prototype Montreal, photographed in Italy equipped with Sprint GT wheels for road trials.

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Tyres

Alfa Romeo initially specified Michelin 195/70-VR14 X or Continental TT714-195/70-VR14 tyres for the Montreal. In 1972 Michelin 195/70-VR14 X were renamed 195/70-VR14 XWX without a change of specifications. Pressures 2.2 kg/cm2 all round for the Continentals, 2.2 kg/cm2 front and 2.0 kg/cm2 rear for the Michelins.

From mid-1972 Michelin tubeless tyres were fitted to the Montreal as standard, and specific Campagnolo wheels with a safety rim were introduced for them. These wheels can normally be recognised by a reduced 14.5 mm diameter counterbore on the outside of the hole for the valve, while the conventional wheels have a 24 mm diameter counterbore. However, during a transitional period some wheels were produced which do have the safety rim for tubeless tyres, but which still have the older 24 mm diameter counterbore. Tube-type tyres can be fitted on either type of wheel. It is not recommended to fit inner tubes in tubeless tyres having extensive internal ribbing.

The 195/70-VR14 XWX are still listed in Michelin's 2000 catalogue "Tyres for veteran, vintage and classic cars" (French version "Les pneus pour véhicules d'époque" and German version "Reifen für Oldtimer und Liebhaberfahrzeuge" also available). According to Michelin headquarters in Clermont-Ferrand, any Michelin agent can order them for you. However, in view of the small demand, production runs are only scheduled when distributor stock is believed to be exhausted and plans for 2002 are not yet known. At present 195/70-VR14 XDX tyres, which are rated to only 230 km/h compared with 240 km/h for the XWX model, are more readily available but they can cost more since there is generally no demand for them.

The types of modern tyres which Michelin can supply in this size and rating (but with a different tread pattern) vary from country to country. In some countries like Switzerland, the 91V-rated (615 kg, 240 km/h) Pilot HX MXV3-A is available in 195/70-R14 size (about CHF 220). In some other countries only the 91H-rated Energy MXV4 model is available in 195/70-R14. In some countries tyre speed rating has to be matched to the capability of the vehicle and Alfa Romeo specified that only V-rated tyres should be fitted to the Montreal. H-rated tyres (210 km/h) are not homologated for use on the Montreal in Switzerland and their use may compromise insurance cover. In the US there is no regulation of the ratings of tyres fitted to private passenger vehicles and federal law does not even require that the load index and speed rating symbols be indicated on the tyres.

Vintage Tyre Supplies could supply Michelin 195/70-VR14 XWX tyres at GBP 113.50 and 195/70-VR14 XDX at GBP 185. If the tyres are in stock when you order, they are shipped immediately. If not, and they have to be obtained from Michelin, there is an additional delay but there is no increase in price even for an order for a single tyre. An informative vintage tyre guide is available on request.

Coker Tire also offer Michelin 195/70-VR14 XWX in the USA at USD 222. Despite a rumour to the contrary, Michelin have claimed that they would never sell moulds for high performance tyres to a company outside the Michelin group and allow them to actually manufacture tyres carrying the Michelin name.

Michelin state that when stocked under correct conditions the shelf life of their tyres exceeds 10 years. A visual inspection for ozone cracks should be carried out.

Current production Continental 195/70-R14 tyres have the CV 90 tread pattern. The 91V-rated version (Article 03 52 276) is being phased out, which will leave only the 91H-rated tyre (Article 03 52 275).

91V-rated 195/70-R14 tyres (Article 1282600) are still available from Pirelli in the P4000 Supertouring series and may be somewhat cheaper than Michelins. At the 2002 Geneva Salon, Pirelli advised me that these tyres will continue to be available for at least the next 2 years.

Other currently-available 91V-rated 195/70-R14 tyres with indicative prices in Switzerland include:

Robert Di Girolami has fitted Yokohama 225/60-R14 A-509 tyres on the standard Montreal Campagnolo wheels.

In 1983 Alfa Romeo Frankfurt homologated 200/70 VR14 and 205/70 VR14 tyres as admissible after-market replacements for the 195/70 VR14 ones. Snow chains are not permitted with the 205/70 VR14 size. The use of these non-original tyre sizes will result in speedometer errors of 1.1% and 2.2% respectively.

In countries in which the use of non-homologated wheels is permitted, changing from 14" to 15" wheels allows the use of 205/60 tyres that are much more readily available than 195/70 tyres for 14" wheels.

On-vehicle wheel balancing systems can detect a wide range of imbalance conditions caused by the drum and rotor, studs, nuts and bearings as well as the wheel and tyre. When balancing the Montreal rear wheels using an Equitron or similar balancer, Alfa Romeo recommended chocking the front wheels and accelerating to 110 - 120 km/h with the rear of the car on jack stands. With the sensing element of the balancer as near as possible to the wheel being balanced there is very little interaction from the balance condition of the other wheel.

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Wheels

The striking show-car wheels which equipped the Montreal prototypes were not fitted to the series production cars, which were given 5.8 kg 6.5J x 14" magnesium-aluminium alloy (elektron) Campagnolo wheels of a tamer multi-spoked "turbina" design. Wheel mounting is by four M12 x 1.5 mm pitch studs with a PCD (pitch circle diameter) of 108 mm. Later similar wheels having a smaller 4 x 98 mm stud pattern were also fitted to some Alfettas. The offset (et) is +25 mm. A brief history of Campagnolo was published in the July 1996 edition of Cyber Cyclist. Originally the wheels were primered and finished with metallic silver-grey paint, possibly AR737. Doug Zaitz has beautifully restored his wheels by spraying them with silver and clearcoat.

In 1981, Campagnolo changed the name of its auto wheel division to TecnoMagnesio and this division was spun off in 1988. In 1998 the TecnoMagnesio brand name was purchased by MIM Ruote Alloy Wheels and it is believed that they can still manufacture the original style wheels to order. Note that the TecnoMagnesio after-market "Montreal" model is not intended for fitting to the Alfa Romeo Montreal.

Hannes Paling of Witbank, South Africa, has fitted 16" 3-piece rims of an eye-catching 10-spoke design by Compomotive. The front ones are 8" wide and fitted with 205/55 ZR16 Dunlop SP Sport 8000 tyres while the rear ones are 9" wide and fitted with 245/45s, which brings the gearing up to 34.2 km/h per 1000 rpm.

Tom Sanor has fitted his Montreal with another 6.5J x 14" 5-spoke Compomotive design.

Tony Pappas in Vancouver, Canada, has equipped his 1971 Montreal with Momo Electrons from the 1970s that were fitted to Alfa GTVs.

Johannes Eckstein has equipped his 1975 Montreal with Kerscher Carmona 7.5J x 16" wheels. They are fitted with Pirelli P7 205/55 ZR16 tyres at the front and 225/50 ZR16 at the rear.

Noting that the 4 x 108 mm stud pattern of Alfa Romeo Montreal wheels is very close to the 4 x 4.25" (4 x 107.95 mm) of the Ford Mustang or German Ford Taunus, Harald Witt has experimented with 205/60 tyres on 7J x 14" wheels at the front (this requires spacers) and 255/70 tyres on 9.5J x 14" wheels at the rear. Centre caps and spinners could enhance the appearance even more. Other vehicles with a compatible wheel stud pattern included some Audi, SAAB and Volvo models, Ford Mercuries and the Porsche 924.

English Montreal owner Scott Slavin has equipped his Montreal with Borbet A 7.5J x 16" wheels in a 4 x 108 mm Ford fitment with 205/55 tyres. The oversize centre bore is compensated by a plastic spigot ring between the hub and the wheel and this ring is machined out to the 70.1 mm bore size required for the Montreal. These wheels have an offset of 20 mm and a slight bevel has to be machined on the back of the hub mating face to allow the brake callipers to be cleared.

Leon Magistro has equipped his 1974 Montreal with three-piece Australian made 7J x 16" wheels branded Simmons.

Rob Jones of Cambridge, UK, has embellished his 1972 Montreal with refurbished 6.5J x 14" aftermarket alloy wheels of Italian origin dating from the 1970s. They are fitted with 195/70 tyres.

Beat Läuchli of Merenschwand, Switzerland, has equipped his customised yellow Montreal with 5-spoke 16" wheels by Revolution.

The 1971 Montreal of John Greason, Memphis, TN, is equipped with 526-series forged 3-piece 7J x 17" wheels by HRE, fitted with Bridgestone Potenza S-02 Pole Position 215/40ZR17. They update the look of the car yet still seem to fit the style of the era.

Norwegian owner Christian Lysholm has fitted his modified Montreal with 15" Compomotive split alloys.

The Montreal of one German owner (Marco) was initially equipped with wire wheels badged "Tru Spoke". The wheels, which appear to be 6J x 14", were fitted with spacers and Pirelli P6 225/50 VR14 tyres.

As the Campagnolo wheels were sand-cast they are relatively porous. Dipping the bare wheels in acidic or alkaline cleaning solutions is not advisable because this could lead to stress corrosion cracking.

In 1983 Alfa Romeo Frankfurt homologated Cromodora wheels (6.5J x 14", 25 mm offset) with the TÜV as admissible after-market replacements for the Campagnolo ones.

In 2011, Group 4 Wheels arranged the production by Compomotive of a set of replica Montreal turbina wheels in a larger 7J x 15" size. These wheels weighed 8.7 kg and cost GBP 300 each. The initial batch of 60 wheels has now been sold, and a further batch will be cast shortly. Enquiries should be sent to Jonathan Sage.

Although they change the style of the car significantly, it is possible to fit the Montreal with the reproduction 7J x 15" GTA wheels that can be supplied by Alfaholics. As these wheels have an offset of +29 mm, they can be mounted with 5 mm spacers.

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Wheel nuts

The M12 x 1.5 mm pitch wheel nuts have a cone angle of 60 deg. The studs on the left side of most cars have left-hand threads, while those on the right side have right-hand threads. Be sure to inform any workshop that may be unaware of this! But some cars may have been retrofitted with right-hand threads on the left side, too. Wheel nuts with left-hand threads are distinguished by notches in the corners. If applying lubricant to the studs, ensure that there is none on the end of the stud. A plug of lubricant in the end of the wheel nut could hydraulically lock it before it is tightened against the wheel. Wheel nuts should be torqued to 6-8 mkg.

Reproduction wheel nuts in polished stainless steel can be supplied with left or right hand threads by Alfaholics for GBP 3.25 each, and by Classic Alfa for GBP 4.25 each (left hand thread) and GBP 3.95 each (right hand thread). All prices are plus VAT where applicable. Giorgio Penatti can supply complete sets of 18 wheel nuts (8 left and 8 right hand thread wheel nuts plus 2 spare wheel nuts) made in a superior quality of polished 316L low-carbon marine grade stainless steel.

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Wheel hubs

Early Campagnolo wheel hubs had an angular section, whereas later versions were rounded. Unlike the version used on some Alfettas, which are secured by a large circlip, the central Alfa Romeo emblem of the wheels fitted to most Montreals is a press fit. The press-fit emblem is easily removed by a sharp tap from inside the hub. A suitable tool to replace it can be fashioned from a hard plastic cup of appropriate diameter.

The thin hub flange for the emblem can be damaged by the mounting arrangements of some wheel balancing machines if their securing device is overtightened. It is preferable to request that the operator mount a universal adapter plate on the balancing machine and secure the wheel by its four studs.

The decorative wreath pattern of the press-fit emblem has an external diameter of 46 mm, while on the alternate version the wreath diameter is reduced to 40 mm to provide a clear flat area for the circlip. Both emblems have an external diameter of 48 mm and the alternate version, which is more readily available (e.g. from Alfa Service Hurtienne, Part No. 2624100, EUR 5.38 each), can also be mounted in the press-fit hub.

Wilson Rugh reports that the Spider '66 - '93 wheel hub emblems (Part No. 98-99-0025, USD 4.75) offered by Bruce's Parts Bin (no connection...) fit the Montreal wheels.

Sunny Waters has had a sign shop make replacement press-fit wheel hub emblems using a reproduction of the original emblem worked up by a graphic artist. A local shop punched the disks out of the closest inch-thickness aluminium available and Sunny (whose hobby is hand-making Windsor chairs with no power tools) dished them using a rough carved wooden buck and the handle end of a carving mallet. After checking the fit, the decals were applied from the centre, working outwards with evenly applied pressure. Sunny then sprayed them with high-temperature clear lacquer left over from coating his Montreal cam covers after cleaning them up during an engine rebuild. A more durable finish could be obtained by photoengraving the emblem.

More colourful hub emblems can be made from the plastic badges intended for the front and rear of the vehicle.

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Suspension

The Alfa Romeo Montreal is a high performance GT autostrada cruiser - a luxurious long-distance express. It is not an agile country lane sports car like some smaller Alfas, and it is generally recognised that the suspension and Giulia-style live rear axle are the most debatable parts of the vehicle's design. With the original suspension there is significant sway when cornering sharply at high speed and the rear wheels tend to patter on rough road surfaces, although the limited-slip differential does maintain the drive quite well. Many owners report much improved handling on replacing the original shock absorbers by Bilstein or Koni dampers. Bilstein recommend B46-0463 gas pressure shock absorbers for the front axles and B46-0473 for the rear axles of the Montreal.

Buy Bilstein front shocks for the Alfa Romeo Montreal
Buy Bilstein rear shocks for the Alfa Romeo Montreal

General information on procedures for checking car trim and front end geometry which is largely applicable to the Montreal is given in "Giulia and 1750 Models - Wheel and Suspension - Front End Geometry", DIASS Publication 1507, published in May 1970. The specific data for the Montreal were not included but were subsequently published in "Giulia, 1750, 2000 and Montreal models - Wheel and Suspension - Front End Geometry - Amendment to Specifications (Supplement to DIASS Public. 1507)", DIASS Publication 1838, published January 1972 (revised edition October 1977). The data are also included in the Montreal "Characteristics, inspection specifications and overhaul directions", DIASS Publication 1785, published June 1971. The latter document is included in the Montreal Shop Manual, although in one of the Mercian Manuals reproductions the relevant pages (61 and 62) are missing.

The specified loads for suspension trim are 45 kg on each front seat and 25 kg on the floor wells plus a full tank of fuel.

Early Montreals were fitted with different front springs on the left and right sides of the car. Montreals from Chassis No. 1428312 onwards were fitted with only one type of front spring (Part No. 105.41.21.505.00, GR Code 60713589) and different spacers as follows.

Vehicle Left side spacer Right side spacer
Without air conditioner None 105.16.21.528.00 (3.5 mm)
With air conditioner 105.16.21.528.01 (7 mm) 105.16.21.528.02 (10.5 mm)

Being of aluminium, the spacers are subject to salt corrosion but some RHD vehicles from the Iso stable have rubber spacers.

Doug Zaitz and his Dad rally a Montreal very successfully with stock springs and yellow Koni dampers, setting the adjustment at maximum for the front ones and at mid-point for the rear ones.

The high rear weight of the Montreal can be reduced somewhat by replacing the original T-Arm by an aluminium alloy one (105.32.25.003.01). An equivalent part can be supplied by Alfaholics for GBP 375. It weighs just over 3 kg, about half that of the original.

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Handling kit

Montreal handling kits have been manufactured which permit a more radical improvement in road holding. A kit of 4 springs and 2 anti-roll bars can be supplied by Classic Alfa for GBP 395 plus tax where applicable. A set of 4 Koni Sport shock absorbers can be supplied for an additional GBP 260, or Bilsteins for GBP 356. The anti-roll bars are similar to those of the HBE kit described in the following, and the ride height is about 3 cm lower.

A fast road handling kit for the Montreal can be suppplied by Alfaholics for GBP 440. This includes 4 springs, a 30 mm diameter front anti-roll bar and ball-joint drop links, but the rear anti-roll bar is not changed.

Suspension specialists Harvey Bailey Engineering manufactured a Montreal handling kit comprising modified front and rear anti-roll bars and four new springs (plus optional Bilstein dampers). HBE are now a member of the EPM Technology Group (20 Victoria Road, Draycott, Derbyshire DE72 3PS, UK, Tel: +44 1332 875451, Fax: +44 1332 875415). The replacement front anti-roll bar has a diameter of 29 mm compared with 24 mm for the original part, while the rear bar has a diameter of 12.8 mm compared with 16 mm for the original. The ride height remains the same at the front and is lowered by about 2 cm at the rear. While HBE have not released any technical data for the kit, the principle appears to be to reduce roll on cornering and dive on braking by greatly stiffening the front end, while providing a soft rear axle to maintain the drive in critical conditions. This approach has been used successfully in the track preparation of other powerful 105-series Alfas. The HBE handling kit for the Montreal cost about GBP 550 but following the departure of Rhoddy Harvey-Bailey from the company future availability is uncertain.

The handling kit can be installed without the use of special tools. However, as new drop link rods are not provided for the front anti-roll bar a tool equivalent to Alfa Romeo A.3.0243 is required to extract the old silentblocs from the original rods. A half-inch drive socket with an external diameter just less than 30 mm may be used as a pusher. Alternatively just drill out the rubber in the old silentblocs, after which their thin outer shells can be easily removed from the link rods. The utmost attention must be paid to safety procedures when decompressing the springs, which are under very high pressure. Note that the HBE front springs are stiffer than the original ones and have an uncompressed length of 29 cm compared with 35 cm for the latter. Hence when decompressing the original springs a range of 6 cm greater than that required for the HBE ones must be accommodated. If M10 threaded rods are used to substitute the Alfa Romeo tool A.2.0169 then a full set of 4 must be employed and they should have a length of at least 24 cm each. Materials must be of unquestionable quality - if a tool part fails and the suspension explodes it could do so with force sufficient to throw the car off jack stands.

Unlike the HBE front springs, which are made from larger diameter rod than the originals, the rear springs in the HBE kit are similar to the original ones with one turn removed. With the car body on jack stands, support the rear axle by the differential at a height just above the strap limit and place a jack under the trailing arm. The special bolts which secure the trailing arms to the rear axle are slightly longer than the clearance from the brake shields. To facilitate the extraction of the bolts, observe the protrusion before removing the nuts retaining the links to the rear anti-roll bar and trim the length of the bolts by a few mm before driving them. When the trailing arm jack and the rear axle support are precisely aligned the bolts can be extracted easily. Alfa Romeo tool A.2.0178 or an equivalent replica can be used to protect the threads.

To avoid damage to the protective brackets below the trailing arm pivots, lower the arms just sufficiently to allow the rear springs and dampers to be removed and exchanged. Transfer the slit rubber bushes, sleeves and clips to the new rear anti-roll bar before mounting it as new ones are not supplied with the handling kit.

Spring sets for the Montreal can be supplied for USD 299 plus shipping by Rugh Engineering in Portland, Oregon, USA, Tel. (+1) 503 621 3794. The front spring rate is 770 lb/in and the rear spring rate 175 lb/in. The springs are made from SAE 5150 steel, hardness tested after heat treatment, and supplied ready for painting. The set of four Bilstein dampers costs an additional USD 370.60.

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CRBB system

The CRBB system developed for Alfa Romeo GTAs lowers the roll centre by the use of a pivoting sliding block at the differential housing. The system was proposed in the ARI Performance Options catalogues for use on all 105-series chassis with appropriate modifications. In April 1972 it was homologated by the FIA for Group 4 Montreals. The system components can be supplied by Italspeed for USD 1995.

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Rebound straps

The Montreal is fitted with double fabric rebound straps to limit the downward movement of the rear axle. For safety reasons, the condition of the straps should be checked from time to time. The original straps are 75.5cm (inner) and 78.5cm (outer) long, 29/31mm wide, and 5/7mm thick. Reproduction straps are available, although they may be somewhat less thick.

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Exhausts

The 90 degree (cross-plane) fully counter-weighted configuration of the Montreal crankshaft results in a very smooth engine with little second-order vibration but a characteristic exhaust throb, sometimes described as a rumble-bumble at idle. The exhaust system comprises 6 main elements - a centre muffler, silencer and rear muffler in each of the two exhaust pipes from the separate manifolds for cylinders 1-4 and 5-8, interconnected throughout by 45 mm OD tubing. The centre mufflers are identical, whereas the silencers and rear mufflers have left and right-hand mounting brackets. All the components of the system are specific to the Montreal except for some rubber mounts and bushings.

Original Alfa Romeo Montreal exhausts can still be found and CISAM have produced components similar to stock. The replacement system made by IMASAF SpA (Padua, Italy) has an additional pipe joint between the centre muffler and silencer to reduce the length for shipping. ANSA made an exhaust system with a pair of straight dual tips instead of the original design with only two downturned tips, a configuration which Alfa Romeo adopted to reduce the possibility of exhaust gases entering the cabin during deceleration. ANSA of Finale Emilia (Modena, Italy) is part of the TESS Group of companies which in 1997 became wholly owned subsidiaries of ARVIN Industries. While the Montreal system is no longer in their programme, stock may be found with some distributors.

Stebro Systems Ltd of Ontario, Canada, (contact Andy or Dan Petschenig) manufacture stainless steel exhaust systems for the Alfa Romeo Montreal. Left and right side front sections cost USD 365 each. For the rear sections, Stebro can supply three designs at the following prices per side:

In the UK, Larini Systems of London offer both "standard" and "sports" exhaust systems for the Montreal fabricated in 304-grade stainless steel. The free-flow sports version, which has a higher sound level than the original, is claimed to offer a 5-7% power gain. The systems, which feature precision laser-cut stainless steel mounting flanges and brackets, are mirror polished and supported by a lifetime warranty. Robert Marksteiner reports satisfactory results with the sports system and has provided a 49 second sound file (1 MByte) revving to 3000 rpm.

Alfaholics offer a stainless steel sports exhaust with two straight-through silencers per bank. Del Smith has provided a sound file (8 MBytes) of this sytem. Stainless steel exhaust manifolds for the Montreal are also available.

304-grade stainless steel exhaust systems for the Montreal can also be supplied in the UK by Double 'S' Exhausts , located in Cullompton, Devon, and Stainless Exhaust Specialist (Don Pemberton), located near Mansfield.

Italian Car Parts offer a stainless steel Montreal exhaust system with 25 year corrosion guarantee for USD 1498. They can also supply free-flow designs in stainless steel at USD 549 each for the left and right side front sections and USD 399 for the rear sections. Installation kits including gaskets and stainless steel hardware are included.

In Australia, Performance Exhaust in Ringwood/Melbourne can manufacture reproduction Montreal exhaust systems in stainless steel. A complete system costs AUD 1750 and the pair of rear sections AUD 500 (fitted).

Ron Avery converted the tail pipes of his Montreal by the addition of straight chrome tips 0.5 inches bigger than stock. Robert Di Girolami installed 2 inches of stainless steel piping to make twin exhaust tips. Dirk & Hannelore Nehme also converted the stock exhaust by welding straight tips to the rear mufflers in place of the downturned ones.

Full custom chrome side mufflers can transform the appearance of the Montreal. The modified exhaust system of Mal Nicholson's Montreal has a distinctive sound (1.4 MByte video clip).

Note that, although more resistant to corrosion, stainless steel is somewhat more brittle than mild steel and some grades can be more prone to fatigue cracking.

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Emission

From late 1972, engines with improved emission characteristics were fitted to Montreals for certain markets and by May 1973 they were being fitted to all vehicles. Such engines are distinguished by the letter 'S' in the Engine No. (e.g., I have AR00564*S0883*). They were equipped with Marelli S 127 D distributors instead of the earlier type S 127 C. See the Ignition distribution section for the 1973 recommendations superseding the 1971 specifications.

The 105.55.04.030.00 Spica injector pumps were also replaced with a new model (105.64.04.030.00) having a different cam profile. The later pumps have a red or yellow dot on the upper part and are stamped with the letter 'A' at the control unit end of the pump section. (Contrary to some documents such as Technical Bulletin 04.73.2.1 the 'A' is not stamped on the cylinder head of the engine!).

CO content (checked at both exhaust pipes) when idling at 850 rpm with a warm engine is about 6.5% for non-'S' engines. An 'S' engine with red dot Spica may achieve 3% CO but Alfa Romeo indicated that if the engine does not run smoothly with these settings it is permissible to reduce the idling airflow as far as results in the CO content increasing to a maximum of 4.5%. An 'S' engine with yellow dot Spica should achieve 3% consistently.

Swiss regulations permitted 1500 ppm max HC and 10% min CO2 for the Montreal. For comparison the typical limits for a modern vehicle equipped with a catalyser are 0.1% max CO, 100 ppm max HC and 13% min CO2. Since 1995 (Art. 59a OCR, L'Ordonnance sur les règles de la Circulation Routière), Montreals first matriculated in Switzerland prior to 1 January 1976 do not require to undergo an annual antipollution test.

In the UK, cars manufactured prior to 1 February 1975, or that were first registered before 1 August 1975, do not require full emissions testing, just a visual exhaust check.

In the US, emission testing requirements for classic cars vary from state to state (exemption in California 30 years after first registration, 25 years in some other states, no age exemption in others unless the car is registered as an antique). In California the biennial test is run on a dynamometer to check emissions at idle, 15 miles per hour and 25 miles per hour. It is also required that no piece of factory-installed smog equipment has been removed.

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Accelerator

The Montreal accelerator pedal is linked by levers and a cable to a mechanism which rotates the control arm of the Spica injection pump and opens the eight throttle plates in unison. Modifications to the accelerator mechanism were introduced from Chassis No. 1427428 (although the changes were also made to some vehicles with lower Nos.). The earlier design had a single return spring on the relay crank while the later version has a pair of springs attached to a plate fitted to the supporting bracket of the starter motor. In addition to these springs the relay crank itself, the cable and the return spring for the accelerator pedal linkage were also changed.

The position of the securing bracket for the activated end of the accelerator cable must be adjusted carefully so that the cable remains accurately aligned in the vertical plane for the full travel of the accelerator pedal. The mounting holes for the bolts by which the bracket is attached to the bulkhead are slotted to permit this adjustment. If the linkage moves smoothly, but the accelerator feels stiff when driving, the pedal may simply be too high for the angle of your shoe! The pedal height can be reduced by replacing the M6x25mm stop screw on the above bracket by a longer one, which allows the cable adjuster to be set to move the operating range of the pedal nearer to the floor after reducing the height of the floor stop. Some drivers may find that it is more comfortable to replace the original accelerator pedal by a modified one from an Alfetta.

Unlike those of the brake and clutch pedals, the cover of the accelerator pedal is not replaceable separately. The complete pedal is the same as that fitted to some other models, such as the Giulia 1600 TI and Super, and new ones may be purchased for around USD 45. The 9-1973 revision of the parts catalogue indicates on p.92 that the Montreal has two accelerator pedals! Perhaps because it is such fun to push?

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Throttle adjustment

The accelerator adjustments should be checked before making changes to the Spica injection settings. This drawing identifies the accelerator bell crank in yellow, the throttle control rod in red, the throttle tie rod in blue and the Spica link rod in green. With the accelerator cable, throttle control and tie rods and Spica link rod disconnected, the idle and full throttle limit screws should first be set, using special tool A.4.0126 if available. At idle, the relay crank should be horizontal (parallel to the plane of the upper surface of the intake throats). The rotation angle of the crank to the full throttle position should be 78 deg.

After removing the two central O-rings, the special tool is mounted on the left throttle unit (not on the right head, as shown in the workshop manual). There are two versions of the tool with slightly different drilling. To facilitate mounting the earlier version without removing the Spica BC, cut a slot from the forward hole to the front edge of the tool. Adjust the idle limit screw so that the ball of the relay crank just touches the underside of the reference arm. Tighten the locknut. Now pivot the arm out of the way to allow the crank to be rotated such that the ball touches the full throttle reference arm. Set the full throttle limit screw, tighten the locknut and remove the tool.

With the throttle control rod reconnected, first set the butterfly idle position for left side cylinders 7 and 8 by adjusting its length. The throttle butterflies should just close (but close completely) when the relay is on the idle stop and they should not impact the throats when the throttle is released. Note that the lengths of the throttle control and tie rods can be adjusted simply by rotating their hex centre sections, which have right hand threads at one end and left hand threads at the other. Tighten the locknuts and set the butterflies for cylinders 5 and 6 by the central adjusting screw. Now connect the throttle tie rod and set the butterflies for right side cylinders 1 and 2 by adjusting its length. Then tighten the locknuts and set the butterflies for cylinders 3 and 4 by the central adjusting screw. Check the synchronisation by comparing the grip on a 0.03 mm feeler gauge or a strip of paper inserted between each butterfly and throat in turn and readjust if necessary. Note that this grip test is to check the synchronisation, not to set a gap!

If a four-column vacuum gauge equivalent to Alfa Romeo C.2.0014 is available it can be used with a set of four C.2.0012 three-way adapters to fine tune the throttle synchronization. A Syncrotest (C.2.0019) or similar manometer may be used to check the intakes one at a time.

After reconnecting the accelerator cable, set the cable adjuster and floor stop such that full throttle is obtained when the pedal is fully depressed, while there is a little slack at idle. See the Spica TA section for adjustment of the Spica link rod length.

This graph indicates the relationship between throttle rotation angle and Spica input lever rotation angle tabulated in DIASS 1785 (6/1971). However, three versions (105.64.04.012.01/02/03) of the accelerator bell crank were manufactured.

Gene Brown reports that the throttle spindle sealing rings (105.50.04.325.00) can be replaced by G*13X19X3B single lip seals from INA, which cost about USD 3.25 each. The eight original bearings (2900.60003) can be replaced by SKF 607-2RSH ones having a seal on both sides, which cost USD 7.85 each.

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Hand throttle

A well-tuned Montreal engine will idle steadily whether cold or hot (see Air filter section). A hand throttle is provided which acts on the accelerator linkage via a cable and allows the idle speed to be set to much higher values for operations such as mixture adjustment. To avoid breakage of its fragile plastic operating lever, the hand throttle should be used only to block the accelerator after the pedal has been depressed to the position required.

A broken hand throttle operating lever can be repaired and strengthened. After securing the parts with cyanoacrylate, drill long 1.7 mm dia holes through them and insert cyanoacrylate-coated 1.6 mm dia hard steel reinforcement pins made from the shanks of HSS drills. Replacement operating levers made of much stronger polyurethane bicomponent plastic can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti.

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Spica pump

The Montreal's 8 cylinder Spica fuel injection pump incorporates a mechanical control unit which meters the fuel delivery to the injectors in accordance with the engine speed and throttle opening angle. Compensation devices make corrections for atmospheric pressure, engine and ambient temperature, cold starting and initial running and fuel cutoff during deceleration.

The pump is driven at half the engine speed by a 0.5 inch wide Gates PowerGrip 270L050 toothed belt from a pulley on the left side intake valve camshaft. Replacement drive belts (Part No. 105.55.04.312.00, GR Code 60715327) are readily available from suppliers such as Classic Alfa and Giorgio Penatti. When refitting the belt, the reference mark on the injection pump drive pulley should be in alignment with that on the pump body when the "I" reference mark on the flywheel is centred in the clutch housing inspection hole, with the piston of cylinder 1 approaching TDC of the induction stroke. (At this position the exhaust valve is open and the inlet valve is still closed, whereas approaching TDC of the power stroke both valves are closed. If the injection timing is inadvertently set 360 deg out, the engine will still run but with reduced performance). A tolerance of ± 5 mm is acceptable. Talcum powder can be applied to aid fitting the belt.

All the Montreal injection pumps carry the same Spica Type No. AIBB.8C.S75.T250/1. (8C = 8 cylinder). The three versions (differing only in the 3D cam profile) which were fitted to Montreals are identified by no colour dot, a red colour dot or a yellow colour dot on the pump body. (See the following section for the different set up data for each version).

Here are some photos of a pump which has been expertly restored by Bernhard Schalbetter.

Regular engine oil and Spica filter changes are recommended to prolong the life of the pump components. Oil dilution caused by fuel leakage from the pumping elements into the engine oil increases wear and shortens the life of the engine piston rings. Do not inadvertently slacken the control rack tie rod spring retaining screw identified by the red arrow on an installed pump! This may drop the spring, rendering the pump inoperable until it is opened for reinstallation. Breakage of this spring is not an uncommon cause of Spica pump failure.

Montreal Spica pumps were initially calibrated with the fuel injectors of the engines to which they were fitted. Alfa Romeo recommended that the pumps and injectors should be kept as a set and that when a new or reconditioned pump is fitted the injectors should also be renewed using those supplied with the replacement pump. The cylinder numbers of the new injectors should also be respected when they are installed.

The fuel pressure at the input to the Spica pump is nominally 1.5 kg/cm2 (max 1.85 kg/cm2). As the pump is cooled by the circulation of excess fuel, it is not advisable to run with a very low fuel tank in hot weather. To prevent corrosion in the pump while a Montreal is in storage, Alfa Romeo recommended running the engine for a few minutes with some engine oil added to the fuel before shutting it down for a prolonged period. In very cold climates condensate in the control unit may freeze, blocking the mechanism. If this happens the shaft, rather than the drive belt, may break when an attempt is made to start the engine.

A small series of reproduction Spica driveshaft sealing rings (105.55.05.128.00) is being produced for Dave Bramwell by Western Polymers in Calgary, Canada. These sealing rings are also used for the distributor driveshaft and the blanking plate on the opposite cylinder head. They will cost about CAD 16.15 each plus shipping.

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Spica TA

The thermostatic actuator (TA) of the Montreal Spica fuel injector has a right angle elbow at the plunger end to clear the air filter box and differs from that fitted to 4 cylinder engines. The TA was not illustrated in the 1971 parts catalogue but this was corrected in the September 1973 revision. The TA ensures that the pump delivers the correct mixture at all engine temperatures, which is particularly important if the car is used for frequent short journeys, and also opens the throttles a little to ensure a satisfactory idle when it is cold.

With the TA removed, use a non-metallic gauge to check the free travel of the mechanism on which the plunger presses inside the Spica logic unit. It should be possible to depress the adjustment screw on the mechanism at least 31 mm below the mounting surface of the TA, encountering mild resistance from the spring, and it should return freely to its original position when the gauge is removed. Be sure not to rotate the gauge when carrying out this test in order not to disturb the adjustment! The pump must be serviced if there is any sign of sticking.

The correct dummy TAs for setting up the different Spica models fitted to Montreal engines are A.4.0158 (27 mm, corresponding to 60 deg C) for pumps with either a red dot or no dot, and A.4.0119 (28.7 mm, corresponding to 76 deg C) for pumps with a yellow dot. With the Spica link rod disconnected and the appropriate dummy TA in place, adjust the internal cam centring screw on which the TA plunger presses by passing a screwdriver down the 4 mm diam hole in the TA shaft. The cam centring screw, which has a pitch of 0.7 mm, should be set for a control arm/reference screw clearance "A" of 0.5 mm for all versions of the pump.

Now replace the dummy TA by a 29 mm one, such as A.4.0120, which will result in the reference gap being reduced. Reconnect the Spica link rod and adjust its length so that it rotates the control arm sufficiently to increase the reference gap to 0.5 mm (tolerance 0.3-0.6 mm) for pumps without a coloured dot and 1.2 mm (tolerance 1.05-1.35 mm) for pumps with either the red or yellow dot. Since the cam centring screw is not accessed during this step, a hollow dummy TA is not required and a simple solid 29 mm TA can be used. Alternatively this adjustment can be made with a warm engine (80 deg C) and the real TA in place, but it should be noted that at idle the temperature can rise to 90-95 deg C before the radiator thermostat switches on the electric fan. It is not necessary to force the clevis socket of the link rod completely on the control arm ball for each trial. Just press the socket firmly on the outside of the ball while checking the reference gap with a feeler gauge.

Note that when the dummy TA is replaced by the real one, the reference gap with a cold engine will be much greater. The Spica control arm will rotate sufficiently to raise the accelerator relay crank from the idle stop, opening the throttle butterflies slightly to ensure a satisfactory idle speed. The crank returns to the idle stop at engine temperatures above about 55 deg C.

A set of simple dummy TAs can be made by fitting M6 x 80 mm carriage bolts with a 20 mm dia washer, filed to 17 mm across the flats. Such TAs can be readily inserted and removed when adjusting the cam centring screw, and secured in place when adjusting the Spica link rod length.

The moulded clevis sockets of the Spica link rod often split after they have been removed from the ball joints many times for tuning adjustments. They can be readily stabilised by a pair of miniature 8 mm dia hose clips, oriented as shown to avoid any possibility of interference with the mechanism. Metal Mercedes clevis sockets can also be used. Alfa Romeo specify that in order to make a fine length adjustment a misalignment of up to ± 30 ° from the in-line position of the sockets is permissible.

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TA offsets

Before tuning the Montreal fuel injection system, the TA calibration should be checked by measuring the extension of the plunger against a load of 4 kg with the bulb immersed in a water bath of controlled temperature. The total extension measured from the mounting flange should be 23 +0.5 -1.0 mm at 20 deg C and 31 ± 1.0 mm at 100 deg C. Be sure to actually measure the temperature of the water bath, since boiling occurs at significantly less than 100 deg C at altitude or low atmospheric pressure.

In the course of time the TA may drift out of spec because of hydraulic fluid leakage. This is exacerbated by any corrosion of the plunger in the vicinity of the sealing O-ring. Hannes Paling has dissected a TA actuator to study this problem. It appears that the corrosion develops in the region just below the O-ring, outside the cavity filled with fluid. With the retraction of the plunger at low temperatures, this corroded region could be drawn into the O-ring, allowing fluid to leak out over time.

If the slope of the TA characteristic is correct (i.e., the range of plunger extension from 20 to 100 deg C is the full 8 mm), the Spica TA can still be used even if the plunger extension has a small offset from spec. The cam centring screw in the Montreal pump is a standard 0.7 mm pitch cyl-head M4 one, 12 mm long, with a compression spring on the shank to prevent the setting being disturbed by vibration. Because of the spring, the available adjustment range is about 6 mm, or 8.5 full turns. The Spica designer arranged that when adjusted for a nominal TA the screw is nicely positioned with about 5 mm of thread engaged.

To accommodate a TA with a positive offset (excessive plunger extension), a shim can be mounted under the actuator flange to bring it within specification and the cam centring screw adjusted in the normal way. If a shorter screw is used instead, some turns should be clipped from the compression spring to allow the screw to be inserted further.

For a TA that has a negative offset, a longer cam centring screw can be fitted if the 12 mm one would have too few threads engaged. If this is done, the spring should be opened up a little to ensure that it is still under compression. An alternative solution is to correct the TA itself by gently crushing the bulb, or inserting a tuning screw into it, until the plunger projection meets spec. Since the TA plunger has a diameter of about 4 mm it could conceivably be fitted with a short extension but I have never heard of this being done.

If only a fixed length dummy TA is available for set-up, it can be used to set the pump gap and then the cam centring screw readjusted (at 0.7 mm per turn) to compensate for the offset of the real TA before it is installed. If an adjustable dummy TA is available (which is preferable) it can be set to take account of the offset before being used for set-up. An adjustable dummy TA should be used to take account of the offset when adjusting the length of the Spica link rod.

One result of a negative offset is that the lower limit of the range of temperature which can be accommodated will be raised. With a 2 mm offset the plunger will disappear inside the cylinder at about -10 deg C, as against -30 deg C for a nominal TA or -20 deg C for one at the specified tolerance limit. Not an issue for Florida residents but certainly a consideration for Montreal owners who may use their cars at Alpine winter resorts.

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TA replacement

Defective Montreal TAs can be rebuilt by Robin Hoeven of San Pedro, California, by AFRA in Settimo Milanese, Italy, and by Wes Ingram of Seattle, Washington. Since 1987, Robin Hoeven has rebuilt over 4000 Spica TAs, including several hundred Montreal ones. He fits the rebuilt TA with a new stainless steel capillary tube, so that even a TA with a broken tube is an acceptable core. The plunger is replaced with a heat-treated stainless steel one, ground and polished to hydraulic surface finish specs, and a stainless steel spring and buna-n O-ring are fitted. The cost is USD 325 plus shipping, and the rebuilt TA is guaranteed for 2 years. Robin can accept a core TA from a 4-cyl car and rebuild it to a Montreal one for USD 350. If no core at all can be supplied, there is an extra charge of USD 25.

A DIY repair procedure for Spica TAs has been described by Rich Hirsch. Richard Pamboer has described a similar procedure in which a special compression chamber is used to inject the fluid into the system. This compression chamber has a screw which allows the fluid volume to be adjusted accurately, and simple readjustment in the case of a minor leak.

Dutch Montreal owner Brenno de Zwart has described rebuilding the actuator with a filling orifice which allows the quantity of fluid to be altered.

South African Montreal owner Hannes Paling has provided an exploded view of the sectioned components of the TA, and has developed a replacement TA that can be dismantled into sections for easy servicing. The design uses a viton O-ring seal, which has a much higher temperature range and higher shore hardness than a neoprene one. Filling is accomplished by sucking with the lungs and the plunger end is fitted while submerged in the fluid. The bulb end is also kept submerged while the valve is fitted and closed. The first prototype TA has now undergone a successful long-term test.

Hannes has provided an AutoCAD file and parts and assembly drawings for the latest version of this replacement TA. There is a separate AutoCAD file for the oval mounting flange, of which two are required per TA. It is cut from 3mm brass plate. Dimensioned drawings for the sensor part and the mounting flange are also available for machining these parts manually. The capillary tubing must be silver soldered in place, as soft soldering is not sufficiently strong. At a later date Hannes plans to produce a batch of TAs.

An electromechanical replacement for the Spica TA was developed by Alfacat Products. The unit featured a microcontroller-based control unit and could be equipped with an optional beeper. The actuating plunger was driven from the controller via a flexible drive in increments of 1.2 mm. The Montreal version (Model 1102-01A Opt03/Montreal) was produced in 1996 and current availability is unknown.

The Shankle "Sure-start" manual mixture enrichment device cannot be fitted to the Montreal Spica pump as it would obstruct the air filter box. Nash Bapola has fabricated a manual TA replacement using brass DIY plumbing components and a bicycle gear shift cable. The plunger is a bolt with the head cut off and a piece of the cable inner sheath is inserted in the elbow to obtain smooth action over the 90 deg bend. The operating lever, a Shimano bicycle gear shifter, is mounted in the bracket formerly used for the hand throttle. It is pulled to retract the plunger during the engine warmup phase and in the released position the plunger extension is the same as that of a normal TA at operating temperature. The spring would return it to this position in the event of cable breakage. The total cost of this manual TA is under USD 20.

While popular folklore is that the Spica TA was originally filled with highly refined olive oil, and SAE 15 hydraulic oil and brake fluid have been used successfully for some rebuilds, the late Fred Di Matteo stated that the original fluid was undiluted glycol antifreeze. However, it may have been a polyethylene glycol of higher molecular weight than ethylene glycol, such as PEG-300 or PEG-400. In order to exclude air when refilling, he recommended assembling the TA submerged in glycol.

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Spica reference

The Spica reference screw is set when the Spica pump is calibrated at the factory and should not be tampered with. Typically there are about 4 threads exposed on the control arm side of its mounting lug but the exact setting varies somewhat from one pump to another.

If it is known that the reference screw has been misadjusted, it can be reset by the following test bench procedure. Install a 27 mm dummy TA for a red dot or no dot pump, or a 28.7 mm dummy TA for a yellow dot one. Position a dial indicator to measure the relative height of the 3D cam follower through the barometric capsule opening of the pump. Start the fuel supply and while driving the pump at 2300 rpm adjust the cam centering screw through the hole in the dummy TA shaft for the lowest dial indicator reading, thus centering the cam follower in the calibration groove. Now adjust the reference screw to obtain a control arm/reference screw clearance of 0.5 mm.

A less precise setting may be possible by adjusting the cam centering screw for the lowest dial indicator reading with the pump mounted on the engine (stationary), the dummy TA installed and the Spica link rod disconnected.

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Spica CSS

To avoid any possibility that the connection wire to the Spica cold start solenoid (CSS) snags the throttle linkages, Alfa Romeo recommended in 1972 that the straight Faston connector fitted to early Montreals be replaced by a right-angle one.

With the injection pump removed from the engine, the CSS can be adjusted by removing the side inspection plate, fitting an A.4.0159 19 mm dummy TA (simulating -20 deg C) and adjusting the solenoid height to set a 1.5 mm clearance "A" between the pin (6) on the lever actuated by the solenoid and the shaped arm (7). An alternative procedure is to adjust the CSS for a drop in engine idling speed of about 100 rpm when the solenoid is energised by a jumper wire. This adjustment should be made with the engine warmed up and after the mixture has been set by the FCS. To avoid overheating of the solenoid do not energise it for periods of more than a few seconds at a time.

An oil damper on the CSS extension shaft slows its return to the rest position for the time necessary to keep the engine running immediately after starting. The piston of the damper is made of synthetic material and has a nominal diameter of 13.5 mm. If it tends to stick, the CSS will remain in the enriched position after deactivation, resulting in an over-rich mixture while the engine is warming up. This can be cured by removing the piston and turning down its diameter very slightly. The piston can be removed through the bottom of the dashpot after extracting the pivot pin linking the solenoid armature to its actuating rod. The pivot pin is secured by a small split pin which can be accessed through the rear inspection panel of the pump. The dashpot plug takes a 22 mm socket.

While the CSS performs correctly when energised by the application of power to the starter relay, it can be useful to add a CSS disable switch which can be opened to prevent flooding in the event of extended cranking, as when diagnosing an ignition problem. To install the switch it can be tapped into the black lead from the ignition switch on the engine side of its connector. A new wire can then be run from the switch to the CSS, passing it through the bulkhead via the grommet for the rev counter cable. The wire should be insulated from the engine heat with glass cloth tubing and disposed such that there is no possibility of it interfering with the movement of the throttle linkages.

The switch and wire must both be adequately rated for the current of 10 A which is drawn by the CSS when it is energised. The contact life of the ignition switch may be prolonged by energising the CSS via a relay.

A 24 mm crowfoot spanner with a maximum thickness of about 6 mm is required for the CSS locknut. Alfa Romeo special tool A.5.0202, intended for checking Alfetta track rods, is suitable. Berge Bergesen has fabricated a CSS locknut wrench from an old spark plug spanner.

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Spica FCS

In addition to cutting off the fuel supply during deceleration (see the following section), the position of the threaded housing of the fuel cutoff solenoid (FCS) controls the running mixture by setting the fuel flow for a given engine speed and control arm position. Unlike those on 4 cylinder engines, the FCS on Montreal Spica injectors is mounted with its axis horizontal instead of vertical. The A.5.0174 wrench for the FCS castellated locking ring is difficult to manipulate without removing the air filter box but a simple FCS ring nut tool can be fabricated from a 40 mm length of tubing of internal diameter about 29 mm (28.5 mm minimum). This tool allows the locking ring to be freed for tuning the mixture without any dismantling. Tom Sanor has provided a report of how he successfully adapted an FCS ring wrench supplied by AR Ricambi so that it can be used on the Montreal without removing the air filter box.

The FCS locking ring can be damaged by the use of incorrect tools. Hannelore and Dirk Nehme can supply reproduction locking rings for EUR 13 each plus postage from Germany.

When tested on the bench, the FCS plunger should move from about 0.3 mm below the surface to 4.9 mm above it when the solenoid is energised. To check if the FCS is working, jumper battery voltage to it while the engine is running. There should be an audible click as the plunger moves and the motor should die immediately. For making tests like this, it can be convenient to have a fuse-protected outlet in the engine compartment, as suggested in the "Power outlet" section. When the FCS is activated the mechanism should move with only slight spring resistance, and retract when the solenoid is de-energised. If corrosion prevents it from retracting the mixture will be very weak, so that the engine may idle but not accelerate.

Having set the hand throttle for a fast idle (around 2500 rpm), the FCS may initially be set slightly on the lean side (screwed further in) of the position which results in highest engine speed. Then check that the engine revs up smoothly from normal idle speed and, if necessary, enrich the mixture very slightly by unscrewing the FCS a fraction of a turn until this is achieved. The mixture setting may be fine tuned by spark plug condition. In case you are confronted with an FCS which is totally out of adjustment I suggest starting with a setting of 14 threads exposed beyond the locking ring, or a distance from the outer surface of the locking ring to the end of the threaded cylinder of about 26 mm.

The Montreal FCS is the same as that fitted to 4-cylinder Spicas, and tested used solenoids can be supplied by Alfa Parts Exchange for USD 50 each. An alternative part that can be used as a substitute for the FCS is the cam retard solenoid that was fitted to some 4-cyl Alfas with fuel injection, such as the 1988-92 75 twin spark. The Part No. is 60513298.

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Spica microswitch

Injecting fuel during deceleration is wasteful, polluting, and can cause detonation in the exhaust system. The Spica cam itself suppresses fuel injection when the throttle is closed at high engine speeds but the cut-off is sharper when the FCS is functioning correctly too. The FCS is energised by a control microswitch mounted underneath the logic section which is operated by a plunger actuated by the fuel delivery cam. It is deactivated when the speed of the decelerating engine falls to 1400 rpm, as against 1300 rpm for 4 cylinder engines. The solenoid draws a current of 800 mA when energised.

Defective operation is more likely to be due to failure of the microswitch than failure of the solenoid itself. If the switch fails "closed", the FCS cuts off the fuel supply completely. (Just pull the faston connector off the solenoid if this happens on a trip). If it fails "open", which is more common, the fuel cut off on deceleration will be less sharp so there may be some burbling and afterfiring.

To check the microswitch, attach a test lamp to the connector of the FCS, rev up the engine and release the accelerator. The lamp should light immediately and extinguish again when the engine speed falls below 1400rpm

New replacement microswitches (Crouzet Type 831320C1.0) can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti, either alone or fitted with wires, heat protection and faston connectors. After replacing the microswitch, set the adjustment screw such that a test lamp just lights up when a 1 mm feeler gauge is inserted between the operating lever of the microswitch and the rubber oil seal of the actuator. Tighten the lock nut before remounting the injector pump on the engine.

Failure of the microswitch can be caused by the ingress of water while washing the engine. Erratic operation can also be caused by rusting of the clip which secures the pivot of the operaing lever. To prevent this, some sealant can be applied to the cover gasket. Failure of the actuator oil seal results in oil leakage from the bottom of the pump. Bernhard Schalbetter had a small series of replacement seals manufactured in special rubber using moulds of his own design.

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Spica BC

The barometric capsule (BC) of the Spica altitude compensator can be removed with its mounting flange for inspection or replacement without removing the injection pump from the engine. The bellows should be easily compressed between finger and thumb from about 27 mm to 25 mm and should immediately return to their normal length when released. As barometric pressure falls, the extension of the plunger should increase linearly at a rate of about 1.5 mm per 100 mm of mercury.

If the BC has to be replaced, note the distance between the flange and the base of the capsule before unscrewing it and screw the new one in to the same distance. With a warm engine, check the position of the hairspring clip on the notched lever after releasing the accelerator quickly from 4000 rpm to idle speed several times over. With the seasonal temperature compensator lever set to the "Above 15 deg C" position, 8 teeth (counting from the top of the notched lever) should be engaged at a barometric pressure of 741-760 mm Hg and temperature of 15-30 deg C. The smaller the number of teeth engaged, the greater the effective radius of the lever and hence the greater the fuel delivery for a given cam lift. The number of teeth engaged in this temperature range at different barometric pressures should be as follows:

Pressure Teeth engaged
700 - 720 mm Hg 10
721 - 740 mm Hg 9
741 - 760 mm Hg 8
761 - 780 mm Hg 7

When the atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg at sea level, it is 710 mm Hg at an altitude of about 570 metres. At the summit of the St Gotthard pass (2092 m) it has fallen to 589 mm Hg. The Spica BC can provide compensation for pressures of less than 500 mm Hg, and Gene Brown reported no problems when crossing the Loveland Pass in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado at an altitude of 11,990 ft (3655 m).

Before removing the hairspring clip from the control rack tie rod (e.g., to dismantle the governor), be sure to note in which of the three holes it is positioned and replace it in the same one when reassembling. The clip is usually located in the central hole of the three.

The capsule is partially evacuated and prevented from collapsing by an internal spring. If the spring fails, the hairspring clip will move to the top of the notched lever, resulting in an over-rich mixture. If the capsule leaks, the internal spring will cause it to expand, causing the clip to move to the bottom of the lever. This may cause the mixture to be too lean for the engine to run. To allow the car to be driven, the defective BC can be temporarily substituted by a bolt of length which results in 8 teeth being engaged on the lever. The length of the bolt should be about L = 49 mm measured from the mounting flange (about 37 mm from the bottom end of the casting). Replacement BCs can be supplied by Afra and in the US by Di Fatta Brothers for USD 38 plus shipping.

Berge Bergesen has created a coaxial tool for adjusting the BC, equivalent to special tool A.5.0217, by welding a 12 mm socket to a wrench and drilling it to receive a modified 0.5" extension bar. A change of one tooth on the notched lever requires rotation of the BC through about 150 deg.

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Temp compensator

The manually operated temperature compensator (TC) located behind the air cleaner box allows the base setting of the barometric capsule to be adjusted to suit the average seasonal temperature. The TC lever permits an adjustment of one half turn. At a barometric pressure of 741-760 mm Hg, the number of teeth engaged on the notched lever for the three different settings of the lever should be as follows:

Temperature Lever position Teeth engaged
Above 15 deg C N (Normal) 8
0 - 15 deg C C (Cold) 5
Below 0 deg C F (Freezing) 3

To avoid stressing the hairspring clip, it is advisable to reposition the TC lever during engine deceleration, when the clip is not engaged with the notched lever.

The Montreal Spica pumps generally deliver a somewhat rich mixture at high rpm. This provides a margin of safety against possible piston damage in the cylinders fed by those Spica pumping elements whose delivery rate is on the low side of average. Because the TC lever has little effect on the mixture at low rpm, it can be used for fine tuning the high-speed mixture without significantly altering the idling. Moving the lever to the "Above 15 deg C" position will lean the mixture at high rpm by about 6% compared with the "0 - 15 deg C" position. Watch out for any signs of lean detonation if this is done. On a cold winter night Peter Schweiss experienced piston burning after a 30-minute 220 km/h run at full throttle with the TC lever set to "Above 15 deg C".

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Fuel injectors

The Montreal fuel injector nozzles require no maintenance and were expected to have the life of the car itself. Both ends must be completely sealed if they are replated for cosmetic reasons. Testing the injectors is justified only if they have become corroded during a period of disuse or there is a definite indication of malfunction. A Diesel injector handpump with a pressure gauge reading up to 50 kg/cm2 can be used (with gasoline) to check for injector nozzle opening pressure, leakage and spray shape. The pipe from the test pump should be connected to the injector inlet fitting, which has a 12 x 1.5mm thread.

Having first operated the pump quickly to prime the pump and injector, it should then be operated slowly to determine the pressure at which the nozzle opens. This should occur at a pressure of 25-28 kg/cm2 for new injectors and a minimum of 18 kg/cm2 for used ones. To test for leakage, raise the pressure slowly to a value 1-2 kg/cm2 below that at which the nozzle has been found to open. There should be no drip from the nozzle during the following 5 seconds.

When operating the pump quickly there should be good vaporization even at minimum delivery and the spray cone should be straight and about 20 mm dia at a distance of 100 mm from the orifice. Injectors which fail to meet these requirements must be replaced. They should be lubetorqued to 2.8-3.2 mkg.

It is very unusual for an injector to become blocked. If fuel delivery from one injector stops, the cause may be breakage of the connecting rod in the corresponding pumping element.

Owing to the high operating pressure, any tiny invisible cracks in the fuel injection tubes can affect operation. To check for this, feel by hand for any cold spots along the tubes which could indicate that fuel is being vaporized. To avoid vibration-induced fractures it is important that the injector line clamps be securely tightened.

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Spica fuel delivery

If a test bench is available the calibration of the Spica pump can be checked. The injectors should be connected in the same order that they are fitted on the engine. About 200 gm of engine oil should be poured into the governor and the appropriate dummy TA inserted (see Spica TA section). It is assumed that the barometric pressure is in the range 741-760 mm Hg and the temperature compensation lever is at "N", so that 8 teeth of the notched lever are engaged (see Spica BC section).

If the pump delivery is found to be equally rich or lean over all the elements this should be corrected by adjustment of the FCS. If one or more individual pumping elements are out of spec, this should be corrected by turning the piston of that element slightly after slackening the securing screw of its pinion. Clockwise rotation of the piston reduces the delivery whereas anticlockwise rotation increases it. The pinion itself should be located such that there is one tooth free at each end when the rack is moved through its complete range.

The hollows on the left side of each cylinder should be aligned with the retaining set screw, which should not be long enough to press against the cylinder as this could distort it. On the other hand, Nash Bapasola has reported encountering a retaining screw which was too short. This allowed the cylinder to rotate clockwise when the outlet valve tower was tightened, resulting in excessive fuel delivery from that pumping element.

To avoid the leakage of fuel into the oil past the lower copper sealing rings, ensure that the delivery valve towers are well tightened (but not overtightened) before being locked. The plastic rings on which they bear should be replaced if they have deteriorated. A simple way to determine whether fuel is leaking into the oil from the pumping elements or past the sealing rings is to apply compressed air and see where the bubbles appear.

The fuel deliveries in the tables are indicated per 1000 strokes.

Early 105.55 (no colour dot) injection pump (27 mm TA) :

Lever angle deg Pump speed rpm Avg delivery mm3 Max difference mm3 Min delivery mm3
0 400 8.3+0.6-0.2 0.8 9.0
5 500 14.5 +1-0.5 1.1 12.6
7 750 13.0 +1-0.5 1.1 12.6
15 1000 11.8 +1.2-0.5 1.1 9.6
50 1000 24.5 +1.5-0.5 1.5 23.5
70 1000 29.7 +1.5-0.5 1.5 29.7
70 2000 30.0 +1.5-1.0 1.5 29.8
103 1000 29.7 ±2.0 2.0 29.2
103 3000 41.6 ±2.0 2.0 39.5

'S' Engine 105.64-D (yellow dot) injection pump (28.7 mm TA):

Lever angle deg Pump speed rpm Avg delivery mm3 Max difference mm3 Min delivery mm3
0 400 9.8 ±0.5 0.8 9.3
5 500 13.5 ±0.8 1.1 12.6
7 750 12.3 ±0.8 1.1 11.4
10 750 13.3 ±0.8 1.1 12.4
15 1000 10.6 ±0.9 1.1 9.6
20 1000 11.0 ±0.9 1.3 10.1
30 1000 13.6 ±1.0 1.3 12.5
30 2000 13.1 ±1.0 1.3 12.0
50 1000 24.7 ±1.0 1.5 23.5
50 2000 21.1 ±1.0 1.5 19.9
70 1000 31.0 ±1.0 1.5 30.0
70 2000 31.1 ±1.3 1.5 29.8
103 1000 29.7 ±2.0 2.0 27.7
103 3000 41.6 ±2.0 2.0 39.6

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Spica service

Montreal Spica pump service is available from Bürgi Automobile GmbH (Oberwilerstrasse 14, CH-8547 Gachnang, Switzerland. Tel. +4152 366 55 03). Sepp Bürgi has made new pistons to replace worn components in Montreal pumps, instead of using ones from old 4-cylinder Spicas.

Montreal Spica pumps can also be checked, adjusted and repaired by Matthias Schafferus of Klassik Garage in Berlin, Germany (Tel. +49 30 41 99 0436).

In the US, Montreal Spica pump service is available from Wes Ingram. His AROC price for an exchange 8-cylinder rebuild is USD 1780. Stebro offered Spica pump service in Canada.

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Carb conversion

A few Montreal owners have replaced the Spica fuel injection system with a set of 4 dual carburettors. The Spica throttle bodies are 32 mm at the narrowest point and in view of unevenness in the castings Phil Hehir, who has converted his engine to electronic fuel injection, reports that they cannot be safely bored out to more than about 38 mm.

For his conversion with Dell'Orto carburettors, Alberto Furegon from Padua fabricated the manifolds by hand and would be willing to organize a small production if at least 10 owners are interested. After fitting four new floats and valves, and eight new handcrafted emulsion tubes, the system is working well, with no flat spots or hesitation, and returned a fuel consumption of 13 litres/100km on a long trip. Here is a short video clip of another Montreal that was converted with his manifolds and specifications. This carb system has also been fitted to the Montreal engine of the unique "Barchetta Corsa" that is being developed by Giorgio Giorda near Barcelona. Here is a video clip of the engine. (18 MB mp4 file)

Mal Nicholson of Trentside Engineering has also fitted his extensively modified "Blue Arrow" Montreal with Dell'Orto carburettors. He can supply the aluminium manifolds for GBP 800. Mal's car has been equipped with a raised bonnet.

Andy Blue of Blue's Autos in London successfully converted the 1975 RHD Montreal of Phil Robinson to Dell'Orto DRLA 40 carburettors, using Mal Nicholson's manifolds and an adaptation of a linkage design by Ian Stronech. By resorting to short velocity stacks and ITG sock filters, the bonnet did not require modification.

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Ignition units

A general review of the principle of operation of the Montreal's capacitor discharge (CD) ignition system is given in DIASS ATRE Publication No. 1643 (April 1971), which is included in the Montreal Shop Manual. However, the actual circuit of the electronic ignition units is more complex as, in addition to the firing thyristor, 3 transistors and numerous other components are employed in the charging oscillator and trigger circuits. A faint whistling sound should be heard in the CD units whenever the ignition is switched on, and the current drawn at their B terminals with the appropriate contact breaker wire disconnected should be in the range 1.2 to 1.6 A at about 11.5 v.

Although all the units carry the same Bosch Part No. 0 227 200 002, the internal printed circuit board layout can vary from one unit to another. Bernhard Schalbetter has traced the circuit of several variants and provided a typical schematic diagram indicating component values and suggested replacements for some of the semiconductors. Note that R1 and R3 are external to the PCB. In some units D6 is missing and R3 is 30 ohms, R4 is 600 ohms and R10 is 260 ohms instead of as shown. These ignition units were also fitted to the Maserati Ghibli, Indy and Mexico, as well as to certain Audi RO 80 models. Similar CD ignition units with a slightly different input circuit were fitted to certain Porsche 911 models equipped with an optical trigger instead of mechanical contact breakers.

The Bosch publication "Technical Instruction: Battery Ignition Systems" (English translation published by Dept. KH/VDT in October 1972) contains some quantitative information on the CD system including a performance comparison with conventional and inductive transistorized ignition systems. The variation of secondary voltage and power consumption with sparking rate is discussed, as well as the effect of shunts formed by the deposit of lead compounds on the spark plug insulator nose.

Gene Brown has provided a handy troubleshooting chart for Montreal ignition problems.

With one ignition unit not functioning, the engine will still idle smoothly, but there will be severe loss of power. As an emergency measure, the defective unit can be disconnected and the serviceable one wired to supply both ignition circuits, provided the engine speed is kept below 5000rpm. New replacement Bosch CD ignition units are rare and expensive, while Bosch in Germany no longer service them. Horace Varner reported in "The Montreal Register" in March 1990 having successfully repaired the Bosch CD unit by replacing the thyristor by a common 70 Amp 600 volt type SCR. Sometimes a defective unit can be revived by reflowing the internal solder joints. Other easily-repaired faults include arcing between components that are too close together on the pc board.

Ignition units can be repaired in Europe by Ignition Car Parts in the UK, by Mario Franceschini, Via Bologna 991, San Martino di Ferrara (FE), Italy, Tel (+39) 532 712451, and by Oskar Müller of Müller Service. Bob Schrader advised that in the USA the units can be repaired by Western Auto Electric, 180C South Spruce Ave., South San Francisco, CA 94080. Contact: Emile. Andrew Gaal reports that in Australia Terry Bebcobington of Bebco Automotive, 26 Alexander Street, Alburn NSW 2144, Tel (+61) 296442888, rebuilds the units for AUD 398 (ex GST). A 2-year guarantee is provided.

AFRA S.A.S. can supply a Ts ignition unit that is a direct plug-in replacement for the Bosch CD units.

The Perma-Tune Model 811902 CD unit manufactured by Plasmatronics is a lower-cost plug-compatible replacement which may be used in the Montreal with the original ignition coils or Perma-Tune SC010 ignition coils. The Perma-Tune units have a higher performance than the Bosch originals and when they are fitted the spark plug gaps may be opened up to 0.065" (1.65 mm). The installation instructions contain some important notes. Plasmatronics can also fit their Perma-Tune electronics in your old Bosch box to maintain the look and fit of the original.

Doug Zaitz has upgraded his Montreal ignition system with twin MSD (Multiple Spark Discharge) units. These electronic units generate a train of 110 milliJoule sparks lasting for 20 deg of crankshaft rotation, which is claimed by MSD Ignition to improve engine performance including starting and idling. They generate a primary voltage of 470 v, compared with 300-400 v for the Bosch CD units. For the Montreal, Joe LaPille of MSD recommended Series 6A ignition units such as Model 6200 (USD 273.30), or Model 6420 (USD 364.40) if rpm limiter is required. They may be used with their Model 8202 Blaster 2 coil (USD 52.70) with a socket tower or Model 8223 Blaster 3 coil (USD 58.10) with a spark plug style tower. These coils have a turns ratio of 1:100, so that the secondary voltage can reach 47 kV. Prices indicated are list and they are discounted by MSD dealers such as Performance Automotive Warehouse. Note that while multi-spark systems can be beneficial for lean mixture ignition, they also accelerate spark plug gap wear.

Tom Sanor has provided a report of very satisfactory results with the Model XR-3000 electronic ignition box and PS91 high-output E-core coil made by Crane Cams. A single system is used, fired by an 8-cylinder optical trigger assembly which replaces the breaker points in the Montreal distributor. You can install the optical assembly in the distributor yourself. The XR-3000 (Part No. 3000-0231) is available from several retailers for less than USD 116 and the PS91 (Part No. 730-0091) for less than USD 53.

Michael Manthey has fitted his Montreal with the Lumenition Optronic ignition system manufactured by Autocar Electrical Equipment Co. The Montreal is not included in their application list, but an adaptation of the system was made for Michael by their German agent Bob Stewart (Stewart Zünd- und Abgastechnik, Ginsterweg 8, D-57271 Hilchenbach, Tel +49 2733 2329, Fax +49 2733 4491). The Montreal distributor had to be sent to Stewart for the fitting of the optical switches. Stewart now offers a version of the system which uses Thor instead of Lumenition modules. The cost is EUR 503.34, plus VAT where applicable and shipping (plus the return shipping of the modified distributor). To use this system the Montreal ignition coils have to be changed for conventional ones, such as Bosch 0221 119 030 or 0221 119 050 red coils without ballast resistors. These cost a further EUR 35 each.

The Montreal of Harald Witt is fitted with an unusual home-made ignition system.

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Ignition coils

Montreals were equipped with a pair of Bosch 0 221 121 002 ignition coils. They have a primary winding resistance of 0.4 - 0.6 ohms and a secondary winding resistance of 650 - 790 ohms. These ignition coils are specifically designed to be driven by the relatively short-duration high-voltage pulses generated by the CD ignition units and coils designed for conventional contact breaker systems are not suitable. Because of the low primary winding resistance they cannot be tested with conventional testers such as the Bosch EFMZ1. The B coil is located forward of the A coil and the connections are numbered as follows: (1) Ground, (15) Input from CD unit, (4) High voltage output.

Alfa Romeo warned that to avoid damage to the electronic ignition units, EMC suppression capacitors should not be added to any components of the ignition system. Never connect or disconnect any cables (including those to the spark plugs) while the ignition is switched on, do not crank the engine with either of the high voltage cables disconnected from its coil, and don't use the coil terminals as signal pickup points for ignition strobelamps. Ensure that there are good ground connections at the ignition units and the coils.

The pulse inputs to the coils from the CD ignition units can be checked with an oscilloscope with high impedance low-capacity probes. Since there are two coils, each fires twice for one revolution of the crankshaft. e.g., when idling at 850 rpm (14.17 Hz) the pulse repetition frequency is 28.33 Hz, corresponding to a period of 35.3 ms. The pulses should have an initial negative swing of 350-400v with a falltime of about 200 ns, followed by a positive overshoot of 200-250v. The duration of this cycle should be about 25 µs and the subsequent damped oscillations should be of low amplitude. Revving the engine should result in no appreciable change to the pulse duration and only a small reduction in the pulse height.

Replacement 0 221 121 002 coils are no longer readily available. The earlier 0 221 121 001 type which was made for certain Porsche 911 cars may be substituted, although they have slightly different dimensions and screw terminal input connectors instead of plug-in ones.

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Ignition distribution

"Emission control" engines (with the letter 'S' in the Engine No.), which were initially fitted only to Montreals for export to certain countries, were installed in all the vehicles from early 1973. These engines were equipped with modified Spica injection pumps and with Marelli S 127 D distributors instead of the earlier type S 127 C, which had a buffer on the main shaft to limit the range of the centrifugal advance. The specifications for the S 127 D distributor are: Distributor points gap for each contact breaker 0.35 ±0.03 mm, contact pressure 950 ±100 g. Contact opening angle 56 ±3 deg, dwell angle 34 ±3 deg. Note that in the Italian and English owner manuals the distributor points gap tolerance is given incorrectly as ±0.3 mm. This was corrected in the French and German versions. Both distributors have a simple centrifugal mechanical advance mechanism and the published automatic advance characteristics (which appear to be rather approximate) for the S 127 C and S 127 D versions differ. Note that these characteristics are as measured at the distributor, at which rpm and angles are one half those at the flywheel. There is no vacuum advance.

After many years the grease in the mechanical advance mechanism tends to clog. The mechanism should be cleaned thoroughly and lightly lubricated from time to time to avoid sluggish operation, which could cause delayed reduction of the timing advance on deceleration. When dismantling the mechanism, note that the lighter of the two flyweights is marked with a yellow paint dot, together with its pivot pin and the end of the points cam fork with which it engages. The longer of the two springs should be put in the flyweight with this paint marking. The lubricant must be a high-temperature type and I use a non-melting grease with molybdenum disulphide. Wear of the distributor helical drive gears has been reported to cause a clattering noise with a resonance around an engine speed of 2500 rpm. The bearing is a 6003-2RS.

Because the points switch a much smaller current than in conventional ignition systems, contact life is very long. Breakage of any of the three springs on each contact breaker set in the distributor will cause the contacts to be shorted, so that the corresponding ignition unit will cease to function. For easy access when changing the points, a 120 mm gear puller should be used to remove the upper bearing support frame.

Original distributor rotor arms (105.64.05.011.03/04, Magneti Marelli 71130801) are blue or black, whereas white rotor arms are reproductions. When replacing the rotor, the red dot should be aligned with the point punched in the distributor shaft. The distributor cap should be kept clean and checked regularly for cracks or signs of arcing. Original replacement caps are now rather rare but reproduction caps have also been made.

Since the 1971 owner manuals were never revised, the ignition timing description in them applies to the earlier (non-'S') engines. The fixed ignition advance of 5 ±1 deg (AF mark on flywheel in line with reference when contacts opening statically) for these engines was changed for the 'S' engines to a retard of 6 ±1 deg (RF mark in line with reference at 850 ±100 rpm). Since the flywheel is also scribed with a 1P TDC line, the AF or RF line may be coloured red to avoid confusion. Maximum timing advance remained 30 +0 -3 deg (AM mark in line with reference), measured at 4600 rpm for the earlier engines and at 4500 rpm for the 'S' version. The AM line may be coloured white. The ignition timing should be set using a strobelamp with the AM line rather than with the AF or RF lines.

To make the flywheel timing marks more easily visible, Gene Brown has scribed them on the crank pulley, painting the pulley black and the marks yellow so that they show up well. Gene has provided a detailed drawing for a pointer which can be fabricated from sheet metal and attached to the three threaded holes already present on the engine front cover around the crankshaft oil seal. Since the pointer is adjustable, the timing marks do not need to be scribed precisely as long as the angles between them are measured accurately.

Nash Bapasola has reported that his 'S' engine Montreal gives best overall performance and no detonation with a maximum timing advance of 34 deg. He found that starting was easier and initial takeoff from a stop smoother with about 8 deg advance at 1000 rpm. Michael Manthey reports that his 'S' engine will not start with a static ignition retard of 6 deg. Tom Sanor reports that his optically-triggered Crane ignition system appears to switch quite abruptly from initial to maximum timing advance at a speed between idle and 2000 rpm and the engine runs very well with this characteristic.

Cylinder numbering from front to back is 1-2-3-4 right side, 5-6-7-8 left side. Montreal manuals indicate that the upper distributor arm (B circuit) feeds cylinders 2-3-5-8. This can be misleading because the firing order for this circuit is 2-3-8-5. The order of the plug leads clockwise from the front of the distributor should be 1-3-4-8-6-5-7-2, which gives the correct firing order 1-5-4-2-6-3-7-8.

For convenience in checking the dwell angles and 45 deg phasing of the A and B circuit distributor contacts on the test bench, I have prepared a calibration card which can be printed (without changing the scaling!) on suitably stiff photo paper. After cutting out the card, it can be placed on the distributor and used in conjunction with a screw through the rotor mounting hole as pointer. While the distributor shaft is rotated by means of the pointer, an audio continuity tester or lamp can be used to compare the opening and closing angles of the contact sets directly with the coloured sectors marked on the disc. The dwell angles should be adjusted by moving the contacts radially, while the relative phasing is adjusted by moving one or the other contact support plate a little axially around the shaft. Gene Brown has adapted a 360 deg protractor for this purpose. He attached a wire pointer to the distributor shaft, while the protractor itself is held in place by adhesive tape. I recommend making all meaurements with the upper bearing in place, as without it there can be sufficient lateral play in the shaft to affect the results.

A dual-channel oscilloscope can be used to check the phasing of the A and B circuits dynamically. The ignition pulses on each circuit should occur midway between those on the other one. The linearity of the oscilloscope timebase should be checked with a square-wave calibrator before carrying out this test.

The original design of the hangers for the leads to cylinders 5-6-7-8 had a closed end. The hooked ends of the later hangers can break off easily, allowing the leads to possibly snag the throttle mechanism. They can be replaced by rubber-sheathed metal strips with cable straps. Hannelore and Dirk Nehme have fabricated a series of reproduction hangers from stainless steel. They can supply these for EUR 15 or USD 18 per pair, plus postage from Germany.

Ignition distribution leads have a finite lifetime and they should be replaced if there is any sign of insulation cracking or electrical breakdown. Replacement sets of 7 mm, 8 mm and 8.5 mm distribution leads are manufactured by Magnecor. Prices from Drag-n-Drift Motorsports range from USD 65.60 to USD 113.60. Sets of red Cavis distribution leads for the Montreal can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti and by Classic Alfa for GBP 40 (Part No. MN040).

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Spark plugs

Alfa recommended Golden Lodge 2HL spark plugs for the Montreal engine and suggested checking them at 12,000 km intervals. These plugs have quad ground electrodes, which are claimed to increase ignition reliability and give a longer service life and a self-cleaning effect in the event of sooting. They are inexpensive, especially in boxes of ten, and I would recommend fitting new ones every 10,000 km. Although the Lodge 2HL plugs are no longer manufactured, they are still readily available (eg, from Classic Alfa for GBP 6.50 each, or from The Di Fatta Brothers for USD 3.85 each). However, some quality issues have been reported with 2HL plugs of recent manufacture. Be careful not to overtighten the terminal nut. If the conductive seal breaks, it is not impossible for the central electrode to fall down into the combustion chamber, causing serious damage. These quality problems have not been reported with earlier production Golden Lodge 2HL spark plugs in boxes marked "Spica. Made in Italy".

The 2HL have a broad temperature window suitable for a wide range of driving conditions. Golden Lodge 2HLD spark plugs are believed to have the same characteristics except that they measure 16mm instead of 21mm across the flats. Possible alternatives are the NGK BP7ES (BP7EVX for the platinum version) and the Bosch Super-4 WR56, or the platinum W5DP with the electrode gap set to 0.7mm. If a worn engine is burning oil, it may be preferable to use the B7ES or B7EVX spark plugs, which have a shorter tip projection. The BP6ES plugs suggested by NGK are less subject to fouling in city traffic but may run too hot during hard driving, with some risk of piston damage.

This cross-reference chart lists equivalents of the Lodge 2HL from other spark plug manufacturers. Modern iridium spark plugs have a long life, but they can have narrower temperature windows and built-in RFI suppression resistors that slightly reduce the spark energy compared with non-resistorised plugs. All spark plugs deteriorate with use, and for the highest performance it is more important to replace them regularly than to purchase expensive ones.

Access to some of the spark plugs of the Montreal's V8 is more obstructed than for in-line engines. By welding an extension tube into the shaft of a standard universal-joint tool a handy 40 cm plug wrench can be made which allows the obstructions to be bypassed. I recommend graphite emulsion for spark plug threads. Petroleum-based lubricants are unsuitable for this application as they can oxidise and bake hard.

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Ignition switch

While replacement Montreal anti-theft ignition switches are available, they are expensive. Complete new Sipea 105.64.23.171.02 (GR Code 60716041) switches with a pair of keys can cost over CHF 200. The life of the ignition switch can be prolonged by fitting a relay. (See next section)

Ignition key blanks can be supplied by the Casa della Chiave in Italy, Keyprof Luke in Holland and Keys4Classics in Australia.

The wires supplying power to the ignition switch and column-mounted light switch are not protected by fuses. For safety, disconnect the car battery when working in the neighbourhood of these switches.

As in modern vehicles the ignition switch is secured by a shear-head bolt, but it may be found that the stub can be grasped and rotated with a suitable tool without having to be drilled out.

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Ignition relay

The starter solenoid and CSS form a heavy inductive load, so that an arc is generated at the ignition switch contacts when they open. The arc can even cause the contacts to weld together, so that the starter remains engaged when the ignition key is released. To avoid this, and to prolong the ignition switch contact life, a relay can be installed to energise the CSS and starter solenoid indirectly.

Suitable low-cost 12v relays with 30A/40A SPST contacts are available from DIY motoring shops. Their faston connections have a standard layout and numbering (85, 86 for the coil; 30, 87 for the contacts). Note, however, that the orientation of the group of connections relative to the mounting lug does vary from one model to another.

The relay can be concealed under the dash alongside the steering column and near the ignition switch. It can be mounted by the existing M5 bolt that secures the bracket holding the padded panel of the manual accelerator lever.

In this position, only very short wires are required to connect the relay. The black wire from the ignition switch is cut and connected to terminal 86 on the relay, while terminal 85 is connected to chassis ground. A faston 'T' is used to tap terminal 30 of the relay into the red wire bringing battery power to the ignition switch. 2.5mm2 wire should be used for this connection. Finally the black wire leading to the starter solenoid and CSS is rewired to terminal 87 of the relay.

Be sure to disconnect the battery while doing any work on the ignition switch wiring!

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Other switches

The Montreal central console rocker switches (105.64.65.039.00 etc.) were manufactured by AnSor of Canegrate - MI, Italy. They are sturdy but can develop intermittent contacts after many years of use. They can be quite readily dismantled for cleaning and revision. Some of these switches were also used in the 2000 Spider Veloce and in the 1750 Spider Veloce from Chassis No. 1820001 onwards (and also in the DeTomaso Pantera and other Italian cars, incidentally). Replacement switches can be supplied by Classic Alfa for GBP 20 each.

Replacements for the Jaeger steering column multi-function switch unit (105.64.23.070.00) are available but quite expensive (about CHF 230). The switch housing is provided with apertures through which the contacts can be cleaned without dismantling. For a full service, dismount the switch from the column after removing the steering wheel and disconnecting the wires at the fusebox and turning indicator flasher. Drill out the four rivets securing the two parts of the switch housing and replace three of them with M3 screws and nuts on reassembly. (The 4th position will be occupied by a mounting screw). Broken switch mounting lugs can be repaired as described for the hand throttle lever using 2 mm dia reinforcement pins.

The reversing lamp switch, which is screwed into the rear of the gearbox extension housing, is not shown in the ZF Manual as it is an Alfa Romeo part. The switch was omitted from the first edition of the Montreal parts catalogue. It has Part No. 105.64.13.534.00 (GR code 60715912). The reversing lamp switch for Alfasuds (Part No. 510931) can be used to replace it at lower cost. The Montreal wiring diagram shows the switch energised through the upper Luci Città fuse, so that it is active only when the parking lights are on. In some Montreals it has been modified to be energised through the upper Accensione, Pompa Carburante fuse, which receives power at all times that the ignition switch is on. To make this wiring change, move the yellow/black wire from the left side of the third fuse from the top of the right fusebox to the top fuse on the same side of the box.

The brake fluid level warning light fitted to early Montreals incorporated an integral push switch to allow the lamp bulb to be tested. In later Montreals this was superseded by an AnSor warning light without the test switch. While the Part No. change was made in the 9-1973 revision of the Parts catalogue, the illustration was not changed and TAV 109 does not carry the new date. The warning light can be tested by grounding the orange wire at the brake fluid reservoir.

Paul Irvine has described the repair of an Alfa Romeo hazard warning switch which appears similar to the type (105.64.65.006.00/01) fitted in the Montreal.

Montreal reversing lamp, radiator fan, fuel pressure and brake stop light switches can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti.

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Hazard flasher

The direction indicator lamps and hazard warning function are controlled by a Bosch type 0 336 401 004 flasher unit (item 47 on the original wiring diagram) mounted under the dash. The hazard warning switch itself was omitted from the wiring diagram in the Montreal Owner Manual, but it is shown as item 75 in the A/C version of the wiring diagram in the following section. The output connection 49a from the flasher unit is connected to the column direction indicator switch, which connects it to either the right or left side group of 3 bulbs when the indicator switch is operated. When the hazard switch is operated, it connects 49a to all 6 bulbs simultaneously, in order to flash them all for the hazard warning. The switch is a simple 3-pole one. Separate poles are needed for each of the groups of 3 bulbs, so that they are not connected together when the switch is open, while the third pole is for the internal red lamp, which is connected to ground by the black wire.

This type of flasher unit was also fitted to the 1970 Toyota Corolla 1200 SL Sprinter and many VW cars exported to the USA from 1968 to 1974, but it is now difficult to source. It can be replaced by a more modern 4-pin electronic flasher unit such as the Ring RFL5 if the unswitched side of the dashboard pilot lamp is connected to chassis ground instead of to contact 49.

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Wiring diagram

The Montreal wiring diagram which appears in some reproduction owner manuals can be difficult to read. Here is a scan (630 K) of the original diagram in which the rear window demister wiring error has been corrected. The components indicated numerically on the diagram are identified in an electrical equipment table. The cable colour codes correspond with the names of the colours in Italian and the identification plates on the fusebox covers are also in Italian.

Gene Brown has made a splendid colour version (140K PDF file) of the Montreal wiring diagram which is much easier to read than the monochrome original. The drawing is at very high resolution and integrates the fusebox identification and electrical equipment table. Gene has also made a drawing including the air conditioning components (350K PDF file) of the wiring of his 1972 Montreal. Some of the wire colours are different from those indicated in the diagram in the owner manual, which does not include the air conditioning wiring.

Jim Neill has made a new colour version (82K PDF file) of the non-A/C wiring diagram.

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Achilles' heel

The most vulnerable element of the Montreal's magnificent race-bred V8 power unit is probably a 17x35x10 mm ball bearing in the front cover (timing chest) of the engine which supports the idler shaft driving the impeller of the water pump. The idler shaft, which is chain-driven from the crankshaft, also carries the sprockets which drive the camshaft chains and the bearing may be somewhat under-dimensioned for this complex asymmetric load.

Several Montreal owners have reported failure of this bearing, even within the first 10 years of the car's life. In one case failure occurred after only 30,000 km, whereas many other Montreals have not encountered this problem in over 25 years of use. Driving technique may be a factor and after a cold start it is wise to allow the oil temperature to stabilise before fully exploiting the engine. With the Montreal's oil capacity of 11 kg this can require restrained driving for at least the first 10 km. It is advisable to keep the drain hole situated below the water pump housing clear by gently probing with a wire (max depth 43 mm), taking care not to damage the internal seal. As shown in this picture, the drain hole can be readily seen from above the engine using a mirror. In addition to providing a witness, the drain hole helps prevent any gradual seepage of coolant from reaching the bearing. Coolant is quite corrosive to the bearing.

Failure of the water pump bearing usually results in failure of the front seal, so that the oil and water mix and the first evidence of trouble may be the appearance of "mayonnaise" in the oil reservoir. Check for this symptom when considering buying a Montreal, as the bearing is inexpensive but replacing it is quite a major operation.

If the timing chest is removed, the water pump bearings can be extracted by a puller equivalent to Alfa Romeo tool A.3.0259. Hannes Paling has designed an impulse tool which can (if you have a steady hand and a good eye) be tack-welded to the bearing to extract it. To extract the front bearing without removing the timing chest, Val Herrera fabricated an extraction tool by grinding the heads and shanks of a pair of 4 in x 0.25 in bolts to replace the claws of a small standard gear puller. The ball bearing cage is first destroyed and removed to allow the balls to be moved around to insert the bolts. Nash Bapola has reported successfully removing the bearing using a pilot bearing puller with a short extension on the jaws. He first destroyed the cage by breaking it in two pieces with a drift and removed the pieces with long nosed pliers. He then removed the balls with a telescoping magnet and pulled the inner race with pliers to give access to the outer race for the bearing puller. The operation is best done with the engine standing on end, so that any debris and ball bearings which fall are collected in the cup of the front gear.

An SKF 6003-2RS1 ball bearing (CHF 14) is a suitable replacement for the cover bearing, which is 17x35x10 mm. This model is equipped on both sides with reinforced synthetic rubber contacting shields to prevent loss of lubricant and contamination by coolant. An SKF NJ 202 ECP roller bearing (CHF 60) may be used to replace the crankcase one, which is 15x35x11 mm. SKF bearings are available worldwide. The packing ring is the same as that used for the engines of many Giulia, 1750 and 2000 models (except the 1300 Giulia T.I.). Alfa Romeo tool A.3.0257 facilitates extracting it from the timing cover of the Montreal engine. Note that in TAV 34 of the Montreal Parts Catalogue the packing ring is shown facing the wrong way round!

The following part numbers may be useful:

Description AR Part No. GR Part No.
Water pump bearing (cover) 105.55.07.224.00 607.153.72
Water pump bearing (crankcase) 105.64.07.224.00 607.157.59
Spacer with sealing ring 105.55.07.220.00 607.153.71
Packing ring 105.44.07.237.00 605.167.93
Spacer 105.55.07.231.00 607.153.73
Sealing ring 105.55.07.249.01 607.153.74
Water pump gasket 105.55.07.203.00 607.153.69

There is some variation in the depths of the packing rings. When replacing the parts, ensure that the bearing surface of the packing ring is about 0.5 mm beyond the front end of the spacer, so that the spring presses the bearing surface firmly against the spacer with sealing ring. This normally requires a spacer length of about 29 mm.

In some cases corrosion of the steel spacer may contribute to bearing failure by causing damage to the sealing ring. Alberto Furegon can supply replacement spacers machined from 316 marine grade stainless steel for EUR 49.50, or a kit comprising the spacer, packing ring and a replacement O-ring for EUR 78 plus shipping.

Mal Nicholson of Trentside Engineering has produced a kit of service parts comprising a sealed cover ball bearing, crankcase roller bearing, sealing and packing rings and corrosion-resistant spacers machined from stainless steel. The kits can be supplied by Classic Alfa for GBP 160 plus tax where applicable. Kits of service parts can also be supplied by TST Rettberg for EUR 199, by Van Lingen for EUR 160, and by OKP for EUR 265. The latter kit includes an impeller and gasket. Nash Bapola has suggested that the sealing ring may be omitted if a sealed bearing is fitted in the timing cover.

Australian Montreal owner Bill Jones has described replacing the cover bearing with minimum dismantling (but still removing the engine from the car) by using a special miniature puller made by Ian Wall.

Racing Montreal owner Philip Hehir successfully replaced the bearing by raising the engine sufficiently to drop the sump and remove the timing chest with the aid of a puller tool. The home-made tool was designed specially for this function. By withdrawing the front studs (subsequently replaced by bolts) the repair was completed without removing the cylinder heads.

These pictures were taken by Sunny Waters while replacing a bearing which had disintegrated:

When a standard (unsealed) ball bearing is fitted in the timing chest inadequate lubrication may be a contributory cause of premature failure. Hannes Paling has devised a modification to improve the lubrication by providing two additional oil channels to the front face of the bearing. The new oil channels are shown in red on the sectional view which he has drawn to illustrate the problem and its solution. In the original design the drive sprocket shields the rear surface of the bearing and a depression at Point "A" could make it difficult for oil to reach it when running at high speed. After the modification any such depression will improve the flow of oil to the bearing through the new channels.

After removing the timing chest it is mounted on a drilling machine and two 3 mm dia holes are drilled from the groove for the front circlip to the roots of the two ribs. Using a hand grinder, small oil pockets are then cut to collect oil running down the inside of the cover. Finally, two small V grooves are cut in the rear of the seal at the locations of the holes. These will not deteriorate the sealing action which is produced by the rings on the side.

Wil Mertens has modified several Montreal engines to improve the lubrication of the front bearing. His experiments have shown that the return oil which enters the timing chest from the Spica pump naturally runs down to one of the ribs of the bearing housing. To improve the lubrication it suffices to drill a 4 mm diam hole at an angle of about 30 deg from the circlip groove to the upper surface of this catchment rib. The bearing retention circlip is oriented such that its opening is aligned with this new oil channel.

It has been calculated that the idler shaft bearings are running near 100% load when the timing chains are properly tensioned and replacement 6003 bearings have been known to fail after only 2 years. Swiss Montreal owner Beat Stauffenegger has adopted a radical approach to the problem and replaced the original ball bearing with a larger diameter heavy-duty roller bearing. The spacer must be shortened by 2 mm to accommodate the greater depth of the roller bearing. With this modification Beat has experienced no problems in 25,000 km of driving over a period of 7 years.

Robert Thompson has fitted a larger FAG double race 2RS sealed bearing to several engines by boring the timing chest to size from the outside up to the position of the inner circlip. The bore entrance is machined to accept a collar that holds the bearing in place, and provides a reduction in diameter to allow the sealing ring to be located in its original position. The new bearing is 6 mm deeper and the spacer, which is made from 316 stainless steel, is machined correspondingly shorter. Rob re-uses the original spacer with sealing ring after resurfacing and polishing it.

Manfred Kopp has replaced the original Montreal engine water pump with an electric one. He can supply the electric pump with its electronic control unit for EUR 346.56 and a kit with a clearance casing, sealing casing and some accessories for EUR 45. All prices exclude shipping and taxes where applicable.

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Steering

While the Montreal steering is precise and relatively light at high speeds, in spite of the large gear ratio of 15:1 manoeuvring at parking speed is not a task for wimps! The Burman recirculating-ball steering box fitted to the Montreal is not interchangeable with those fitted to other 105 series cars. RHD cars were fitted with a Type 7320 ZF steering box of the worm-and-roller type instead of the Burman model.

The Burman steering box should be filled with SAE 90 gear oil, not with grease, to a level about 20 mm below the edge of the filler hole. From 1974, to avoid damage to the lower oil seal by internal pressure build-up when the box is heated by the nearby exhaust manifold, the steering boxes were fitted with a filler plug having a breather slot. Alfa Romeo recommended that earlier filler plugs be replaced by the later type, or that a breather slot be cut into them.

From Chassis No. 1428255 (and RHD Chassis No. 1440121) the screw linking the steering column to the steering box of the Montreal was replaced by a new type 2100.14011 to reduce the danger of it loosening. Vehicles so equipped are identified by a blue paint mark on the steering box. Montreals with earlier Chassis Nos. were the subject of a factory recall for this modification in early 1974.

The casting of the Burman steering box tends to suffer from fatigue cracking, so that the use of wider front tyres may be inadvisable. As fracture of the lower front mounting lug is not uncommon, it may be desirable to unwind the helicoil in it and replace the bolt by a longer one with a nut and large washer to spread the load.

Greek Montreal owner Manos Protonotarios manufactured a series of reproduction steering boxes having greater wall thickness than the original design. These boxes were supplied with a preassembled grooved bushing, one oil seal and three gaskets. The reproduction boxes were cast from the aluminium alloy of old Alfa Romeo 4-cylinder engine blocks and the entire production has now been sold. Manos recommended the use of steel reinforcing plates (2mm thick inside, 3mm thick outside, with these dimensions).

Timo Jaatinen reports that one lug of his Montreal steering box broke after failure of the spot welding of the chassis member to which it is attached. He strengthened the chassis by welding reinforcement plates to it and welded a 40 mm wide, 3 mm thick plate under the chassis to join the reinforcing plates on either side of it. Timo dismantled the steering box to allow it to be repaired by welding, which requires heating it to 400 deg C. He had the broken steering box repaired by a specialist who welded layers on each other continuously to build up the new lug and Timo has provided details of the welding procedure. A new hole was drilled in the repaired lug and a helicoil fitted to complete the repair. The specialist welder, who is located in Hattula (100 km north of Helsinki), is prepared to repair steering boxes and other aluminium alloy parts, such as cylinder heads, which are sent to Timo for attention. Timo can also arrange for the repaired steering boxes to be machined and for helicoils to be inserted if required.

In Germany, Kai Rafeldt has had a successful steering box welding repair made by Mr Frey of Schweisstechnik, Im Laenderein 33, D-71732 Tamm, Tel: +49 7141 913304.

To detach the Pitman arm from the splined end of the steering box shaft, it may be necessary to use a hydraulic press or a tool equivalent to Alfa Romeo Special tool A.3.0119. When reassembling the box, the cover plate bolts should be secured with thread lock and lock washers.

When restoring his 1972 Montreal, Victor Hugo Trein made a cast iron steering box to replace the original. He can supply a limited number of these to other owners for USD 650 (including worldwide shipping). The steering box is supplied with a new lower bushing and oil seal for the rocker arm.

Reproduction aluminium alloy steering boxes for the Montreal can be supplied by Vendilo in San Marino. When ordering, quote "www.alfamontreal.info" to obtain a discount of 5%.

Reproduction aluminium steering boxes without internal parts or covers can also be suppled by AFRA S.A.S. for EUR 696 (including 20% VAT) and by Alfaholics for GBP 695 plus VAT. The latter model is CNC machined from aerospace grade aluminium.

As part of an extensive restoration and upgrade, Alfaholics have fitted hydraulic power steering to a 1973 Montreal.

Although the steering configuration differs, the track rod ends fitted to the Montreal are the same as those used in all other 105-series cars. Different versions equipped with castellated nuts and nyloc nuts have been found with the same Part No. The nyloc nut version may be longer as there should be a minimum of 3 threads above the nut. In view of the limited clearance from the chassis members, the version secured by castellated nuts is preferable for the Montreal.

At least 10 different steering wheels and 6 different horn controls were fitted to 105/115 series cars. (See the "Horns" section for Montreal horn control variants). The wood-rimmed Hellebore steering wheel of the Montreal (105.64.23.051.00) was also fitted to the 2000 Berlina, equipped with the same black hub cover carrying a gold-backed transparent plastic emblem. As an alternative, a more colourful metallic emblem can be fitted to the hub cover and 40 mm diameter emblems having a suitable surface curvature can be supplied by OKP for EUR 8.50 each. Hannes Paling reports that the steering wheel of the early 1970s Giulia coupé can be fitted to the Montreal. In addition to having a smaller diameter, this steering wheel is less dished than the normal model.

The steering wheel can be difficult to remove. The hooks of a small gear puller can be adapted to fit in the three rectangular notches in the hub, or a puller equivalent to Alfa Special Tool A.3.0451 can be fabricated with studs which fit in the two diametrically opposite M5 holes.

The height of the Montreal steering wheel can be adjusted by elongating vertically the holes in the U-section steering column mounting bracket. When lowering the steering wheel (in which case hole A is slotted up and hole B slotted down) it may be found that the bracket is narrower near the upper corners than at the lower edges. This can be accommodated by filing down the width of the alloy support casting at the level of hole A. After adjusting the steering wheel height, the plastic column jackets (shrouds) will require minor reshaping to obtain a good fit. Warm the thermoplastic with a hot air blower until it just softens, and then remould the jackets by hand to the new shape required. Note that 7 screws of 5 different lengths! (2 x 12 mm, 30 mm, 2 x 40 mm, 45 mm and 70 mm) require to be correctly positioned to secure the jackets.

By raising the support casting at A and lowering it at B the steering wheel can be positioned nearer the vertical than with the original mounting.

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Cooling

Alfa Romeo recommended that, even during the summer months, the cooling circuit of the Montreal engine be filled with an antifreeze mixture. The antifreeze contains corrosion inhibitors and also raises the boiling point of the coolant to above 100 deg C. The coolant circuit should be flushed and the coolant renewed every 30,000km or 12 months, whichever comes first. The heater valve should be opened during this operation.

Minor errors were introduced when the owner manuals were edited between the different language editions. A pump bleed screw was added to the cooling system diagram on p. 57 of the December 1971 English version, altering system component references 16, 17 and adding 18. But the associated text was not fully updated, so that block drain plug 18 is referred to in the draining instructions as 17 (which is now the pump itself).

As the engine heats up, a wax-pellet thermostatic valve opens to allow coolant to circulate through the radiator. To prevent boiling, a thermostatic switch senses the temperature of the coolant in the radiator and energises the electric fan when it reaches 90-95 deg C. The electric fan (Bosch 0130701010) has the same motor and blades as the type that was fitted to some early 1970s Mercedes cars, and they can be transferred to the Montreal mounting bracket. As with the electric window motors, detachment of the stator magnets in the fan can cause sluggish operation or failure. Steve Hasic has successfully repaired two fan motors by securing the magnets back in position with epoxy. See the "Fuses" section concerning the fan fuse, which is somewhat under-rated.

The temperature of the coolant is measured by a thermistor located towards the rear of the right cylinder head. The thermistor has a resistance of 120 ohms at 100 deg C. At the gauge graduations of 40, 80 and 120 deg C, the resistance is approximately 1200, 200 and 47 ohms respectively.

As the pressure in the circuit rises, coolant is expelled into the compensating reservoir via the spring-loaded sealing ring of the filler cap above the thermostatic valve. If the cap seal is compromised by wear or corrosion, air instead of coolant may be drawn back into the system when the engine cools. As a result, air and excessive coolant can be expelled through the reservoir the next time the engine is run. Very slight leaks at gaskets or coolant hose clamps can cause the same effect. On the other hand, a continuous stream of bubbles in the coolant while the engine is idling normally indicates leakage of combustion gases due to a cylinder head crack or a defective cylinder head gasket.

Replacement coolant hoses are available from several suppliers, such as AFRA, AMS Montreal-Service, Classic Alfa and G. Häckner.

Re-manufactured Romablok hose clamps in a range of diameters can be supplied by Mount Carmel Spares at USD 2.50 to USD 11 each.

To ensure adequate cooling of the fuel, the level in the tank should not be allowed to run low when driving hard in hot weather. It can be advantageous to fit a separate fuel cooler if the car is to be driven in severe conditions at high altitude.

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Air grilles

Ventilation air for the adjustable vents in the sidewalls of the cabin is ducted from ram air inlets behind the radiator grille. The air for all the other ventilation, heating and demisting vents is drawn through the two plastic grilles located on the scuttle just forward of the windscreen.

These grilles are quite fragile, and are easily broken if leant upon when bending over the engine. Metal reproduction grilles have been produced, but these can cause chipping of the paintwork at the edge of the bonnet. Reproduction plastic grilles of excellent quality can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti.

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Heater

The Montreal heater unit is similar to that fitted to other 105-series cars, and the heater core is identical to that of the 1300/1600 GT Junior, late 1750 Berlinas, and the 2000 Berlina and GTV. The centre console and lower dashboard must be removed to take out the heater unit for repair. Oliver Heinisch has written a note (5.3MB PDF file) about the procedure. The gear lever knob is a push fit and can be removed by turning and rocking it while pulling upwards.

The heater control valve is the same as that fitted to all 105-series cars, and leakage due to cracking or deformation of its synthetic mounting flange is quite common. Although some agility is required to access the valve, it is possible to replace it without removing the heater unit. A deformed mounting flange can be repaired by bonding a new metal flange to the original one.

As illustrated in the owner manuals on p.18, the correct escutcheon plate for the horizontally-pivoting heater control levers of the Montreal has the airflow direction arrows engraved vertically. Even at origin, many Montreals were fitted with another escutcheon plate (Part No. 105.48.57.178.00) having arrows parallel to the control lever slots which was made for other Alfa Romeo cars, such as the 1750 Berlina, in which the controls pivot vertically in the central console. Reproduction escutcheon plates with correctly-oriented arrows have been produced in polished aluminium alloy and chrome-plated brass, with either single or two-piece construction. The latter type can be fitted without removing the handles from the ends of the control levers.

Montreals fitted with air conditioners have a different escutcheon plate on which a single double-headed horizontal arrow indicates the direction of movement of the upper control lever, not the direction of the airflow.

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Seat belts

Most Montreals were initially fitted with Italian-made Klippan 1391 fixed safety belts (Fiat 850/DAF 44 model) for the driver and front passenger seats. While authenticity purists will prefer to maintain the original equipment, inertia reel belts are a lot more convenient and can be fitted quite readily. The reels of some seat belts, such as modified Suzuki SB912 ones, can be attached to the door pillars. Doug Zaitz has attached Honda belts to the wheel arches and Oliver Heinisch has installed Alfa 75 belts in the same way.

In either case appropriate reinforcement of the attachment points is advisable and in some countries there may be vehicle homologation and insurance issues if safety-related equipment is modified. The Montreal door pillars are steeply raked. If seatbelt reels are mounted at an angle, ensure that they have a latching mechanism which is not disturbed by this. (Some models have an angle adjustable pendulum for installation at any angle). When replacing the stalk securing bolts in the central transmission tunnel verify below the chassis that they do not snag the hydraulic brake line on the left side or the fuel lines on the right.

Montreal 500/30 inertia reel seat belts are manufactured by Securon. They are available in black, red, blue, grey and beige. Mike Matzek has had these belts installed in his Montreal with the inertia reels concealed below the rear seat squab.

In 1977 Alfa Romeo Germany offered inertia reel seat belts for the Montreal under the Part No. D-670/3.

Some Montreals carry a BS AU48 : 1965 tag or stamp. This indicates compliance with the 1965 British Standard (Automotive) 48 for Seat Belt Anchorage Points.

Tom Sanor has fitted his Montreal with lap seat belts of a generic type.

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Luggage straps

Original Alfa Romeo leather luggage straps for the Montreal rear seats are hard to find, although as recently as 1995 Geoff & Ann Poole came upon a lot of about 24 in the UK garage of Jon Dooley. (Note that the garage is now closed and they are not able to supply straps, however). Bernhard Schalbetter made a luggage strap drawing showing the dimensions of the original straps and their attachment fittings which can be used to make up reproductions. Francesco Giampà has made a pair of leather straps from the drawings.

Sunny Waters has had attachment fittings made to these drawings in 303 stainless steel at a cost of USD 106.52 per set and he is organising a small production for other Montreal owners. (See the November 2000 archives of the Montreal forum for details).

Fine sets of reproduction luggage straps have also been made by Rob Jones in tan leather and by Dirk Nehme in black leather.

Transporting very heavy luggage on the rear seats may represent a certain safety hazard since the mounting points of the upper luggage strap securing plates, which also retain the seat dossier, are not reinforced as strongly as seat belts. The lower luggage strap securing plates are missing from the Montreal parts catalogue, as indeed are the luggage straps themselves. Reproduction upper and lower securing plates can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti.

Gene Brown reports that the luggage straps can hold two cases of wine safely while doing some spirited driving during the annual wine tour of the Alfa Romeo Owners of Southern California.

Tom Sanor has extended the carpeted surface to cover the rear seat area.

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Radio

An automobile which displays as much attitude as the Montreal deserves a stereo system which can do justice to the sounds of the swinging sixties and roaring seventies. The judicious placement of the loudspeakers in the cabin ventilation slats allows the entire surrounding environment to share the nostalgia. But it also results in their being somewhat exposed to humidity and Alfa Romeo recommended the installation of weatherproof loudspeakers. A baffle plate can be used to mount modern speakers (such as Kenwood KFC-HQ46C) having a different footprint from the originals.

While the console was foreseen for the installation of a 1970's Italian Autovox "Melody" or similar autoradio mounted by the control shafts, it can be readily modified to accept a higher performance model, such as a more modern Blaupunkt "Montreal", requiring a standard DIN-ISO 7736 cutout. A Montreal was featured on the front cover of the Blaupunkt autoradio catalogue for 1987. A radio decal was sometimes applied to the Montreal windscreen when a radio was fitted.

The radio aperture was originally covered by a 184 mm x 48 mm padded blanking plate of style matching the ashtray lid and carrying the skeleton Bertone "b" emblem. A reproduction blanking plate with the Bertone emblem can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti. This plate has slightly larger dimensions (196 mm x 56 mm) than the original in order to cover the larger aperture that may have been made to accommodate a modern autoradio.

Storage compartments in the Montreal are at a premium and non-smokers may appreciate the fact that if the internal grille is removed from the ash tray it makes a very convenient audio cassette holder.

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Antenna

Since Montreals were not fitted with radios at the factory, the antenna placement location varied with the preferences of the dealer, service shop or owner carrying out the installation. The most common locations are on the left or right rear wings but central mounting above the windscreen is also possible, as on the car of Harald Witt.

In 1971 a set of Montreal radio installation guides was published in several languages: Publication No. 1823 (6/71, Italian, 5000 printed), Publication No. 1850 (11/71, French, 3000 printed), Publication No. 1851 (12/71, English, 1600 printed), and Publication No. 1852 (10/71, German, 2800 printed). Labels were printed to draw attention to the importance of following these guides. The guides, which were issued as supplements to the corresponding Owner Manuals, specified a mounting location for a manual telescopic antenna on the left wing 40 cm forward of the rear of the vehicle. If a motorised unit is fitted I recommend installing the antenna at a location 46 cm forward of the rear of the vehicle to allow the mechanism to be accommodated between the battery and the rear wheel arch. If a battery cover is fitted a cutout may be required for the antenna motor.

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EMC

Alfa Romeo's original (1971) radio interference suppression recommendations for the Montreal can be roughly translated as:

There is no need to change the spark plug caps or ignition cables as the original parts have interference-suppressing characteristics (cables are typically Bougicord 403 Class C). To avoid damage to the ignition units, suppression capacitors should on no account be added to any components of the ignition system. Never connect or disconnect any cables (including those to the spark plugs) while the ignition is switched on.

As an alternative to the standard Bosch 0190601006 AD1/14V voltage regulator, a version 0190600006 was available with additional internal interference suppression components. The regulator can also be replaced by the linear transistorised model 0192062007, which does not generate switching transients. The Montreal of Mark Wallis is equipped with an external Beru SK1662 interference suppressor which is fitted with connectors allowing it to be plugged in series with the cable to the original electromechanical voltage regulator.

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Clock

Although the French-made Jaeger electric clock fitted to the Montreal is not a precision jewelled instrument it is capable of quite accurate timekeeping and makes a nice ticking sound. It is easily dismantled for service.

The clock draws 4.5 mA from the battery. If it fails to self-start after the battery has been disconnected, try pressing the time-setting knob a few times or disconnecting and reconnecting the battery repeatedly to get the balance wheel oscillating.

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Lamps

All versions of the Montreal owner manual, lamp bulb list and schematic wiring diagram indicate the use of dual filament 5/21W BAY15d lamps (No. 86) for the rear parking and stop lights. In fact the Carello tail light units fitted to Montreals are usually equipped with 3 separate bulb holders for these functions, one BA15s holder for a 25W stop light flanked by a pair of BA9s holders for 4W parking lights in each unit. Since there is no ground in the 4-contact tail light unit connector, and the ground through painted bodywork may be of uncertain integrity, a wire should be connected to the chassis from one of the 6 mm fixing bolts.

In some Montreals with amber lens front direction indicators, the front parking lamps are integrated in the outer headlamps instead of implemented by dual filament lamps (No. 1) in these indicators as shown in the documentation. 55W axial filament H1 type headlamp bulbs should be used for both the outer pair of dipped headlamps and the inner main beam pair.

Headlamps with tarnished reflectors can be replaced with BMW 325 ones. While the lenses for the main beam lamps are symmetrical, those for the outer lamps have different patterns for LHD and RHD cars. Suitable RHD units can be supplied by Classic Car Accessories (Ref. CL0413).

While the standard tail lamp cluster had amber turning lights and clear reversing lights, some Montreals destined for France were fitted with amber reversing lights. Sets of reproduction tail lamp lenses have been developed by Giorgio Penatti. The lenses are stronger than the originals, and are supplied with gaskets and fixing screws. (Production of these lenses is at present delayed by a requirement to change the base resin for ecological reasons)

Dirk & Hannelore Nehme can supply a set of 16 reproduction stainless steel screws for attaching the lenses of the tail lamps and direction indicators. These special screws have turned-down shanks and PTFE washers to avoid possible damage to the fragile lenses.

Door lights (No. 61) were not fitted to Montreals destined for certain markets. Blanking plates were fitted to these vehicles instead.

All the lamp types used in the Montreal are still readily available except the 3W type used in the instrument pods. These may be replaced by current 5W bulbs of the same physical size (W2.1 x 9.5d) without any apparent problem of overheating. Access is from the rear of the instruments.

Intermittent operation of the engine compartment lights can be caused by loose rivets in the lampholders. Reproduction lampholders can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti.

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Eyelids

The Montreal headlamp shelters are one of the most distinctive features of the car's styling. In the raised position, the pneumatically-operated shelters preserve the aerodynamics and aesthetics of the body. Unlike conventional pop-up headlamp designs they allow the headlamp flasher to be operated without delay. For night driving, the shelters pivot downwards to clear the beams of all 4 headlamps entirely.

The solenoid valve which controls the vacuum lines from the headlamp shelter actuators is located in the nose of the vehicle. The nipples of the valve are numbered as follows.

Left side:

Right side:

The logic is: Lamps off = valve solenoid de-energised = vacuum on lines 2, vent tube to lines 3 = actuator pistons retracted = eyelids raised.

In the case of a failure of the pneumatic mechanism, the eyelids can be lowered manually when the control valve attached to the vacuum reservoir is moved from the automatic to the manual position. This allows air to be drawn in through a port at the bottom of the valve.

When renewing the tubes be sure to use enough flexible hose at the actuator ends to allow the actuators to pivot as the pistons extend and retract. Although there are no entries in the modification record boxes, there are two versions of the relevant TAV 135 in the Montreal Parts Catalogues. In the earlier version, separate Part Nos. are given for all the flexible hoses and there is no designation on the generic tube A, while in the later version the global designation 3.34150.045.214 is used for all the flexible hoses "by the cm".

In the revised table the Part No. of the small B clips was changed from 105.51.04.435.00 to 105.64.04.435.00 and their number increased from 24 to 26. The reference to the large C clips changes from (2) to (1) and the Part No. of the solenoid valve is listed incorrectly (should be 105.64.65.097.00). The pages 407 and 408 disappeared from the revised TAV135 because they are no longer required.

Leaks in the vacuum system can lean the mixture in engine cylinder 4 (cylinder 8 for RHD cars) relative to the others, with a risk of piston damage due to lean detonation in that cylinder.

Minor leaks in the actuator diaphragms can be repaired with car tyre inner tube repair materials. Reproduction diaphragms can be supplied for USD 60 per pair plus postage by Victor Hugo Trein, Rua Altamira 35, Esteio-RS-Brazil, CEP 93265-070.

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Eyelid buffers

Some Montreals are fitted with adjustable rubber buffers mounted on brackets on the outer headlamp frames, which limit the downward movement of the eyelids when they are opened. On some cars, the brackets are present but the buffers are not. Replacement buffers can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti. They are similar to the 105.64.56.205.00/01 bonnet buffers, but of slightly smaller size.

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Horns

The Montreal is equipped with an electric town horn and strident Fiamm Series 2000 TA/O, TA/OP or TA/OPF electro-pneumatic horns for highway use. Some cars were fitted with horns with curved brass trumpets painted hammer-finish grey, while others have straight trumpets of bright blue colour.

The air compressor, located with the horns in the nose of the car, can be accessed for lubrication with engine oil through the dipped forward section of the bonnet. For improved access, remove the lower grille by prising it from the retaining spring clips after slackening the nut on the lowest stud behind the moulded central radiator frame. For full access, remove this frame with its grille entirely, followed by the left bumper and the mesh grille above it.

After slackening the locknuts the horns can be adjusted by screwing the trumpets in or out of the base units. The air gap is fairly critical and no more than a half turn adjustment either way is needed. Since the upper (TA) high-tone and lower (TB) low-tone units interact they must be adjusted together.

Early Montreal steering wheels were fitted with a solid three-pronged horn control, which was also used for the Nuova Giulia Super 1300/1600. Later Montreals had a version with three levers which pivot individually, as fitted to the steering wheel of the 2000 Berlina. The earlier version horn control can be balanced by adjusting the three red-painted screws in the wheel hub. These screws are not present in the later version. When removing the large circlip to service the mechanism, watch out for the big compression spring which can fly out when it is released!

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Battery

The Montreal 12v 65Ah battery is housed in a rather inaccessible location in the left rear corner of the boot. The service instructions suggest that it should be removed for routine checking, which requires the disconnection of the connecting cables and the removal of the anchoring clamp and even the spare wheel! This operation requires care to avoid lower back strain or car paintwork damage and in practice it may be more convenient to arrange a mirror and illumination to allow the battery to be serviced in situ. Such maintenance can be eliminated by the use of a sealed battery such as the Oerlikon Multipower 6 MP 550/50-51. The detachable bottom cleats of this battery should be removed before installation in the Montreal. Note that some maintenance-free batteries which have calcium added to the electrodes to reduce outgassing can benefit from a rather higher charging voltage than traditional ones.

The battery tray accepts standard 175 x 278 mm cases and the right anchor clamp (in front of the battery) adjusts for any type of foot. However the securing clamp on the left side of the car (behind the battery) is a 13 cm long U-section fixed steel channel of internal dimensions 14 x 14 mm. Since the base of the battery when mounted on the tray is 5 mm above the deck, the battery foot must have a chamfered edge at a height of about 9 mm to engage this channel correctly. Some modern battery cases have a much higher foot which will not enter the channel.

Initially a battery protection moulding was provided to cover the battery. Since the spare wheel must be lifted to remove it, the protection hinders access to the battery to such an extent that original covers are now rarely to be found! Reproduction battery covers can be supplied by René Richner. It has been reported that, possibly because they are more rigid, the reproduction covers can be even more difficult to fit than the originals.

If a battery cover is not present, a protection must be fitted so that it is impossible for anything placed in the luggage compartment to cause a short circuit to the positive terminal of the battery. Ken Swanstrom has fitted his Montreal with a battery protection made from 1/4-in plywood. The top of the panel is secured by two screws with fluted plastic heads, tapped into the rail above the battery opening, while the lower part is held in place by the spare wheel. To check the fit, the drawing could be copied on to cardboard before cutting the plywood. The plywood panel can also be used to mount a fire extinguisher bracket.

In addition to the 4.5 mA of the clock, the flasher control unit (which is powered at all times to allow the hazard warning lights to be used even when the ignition is switched off) has a continuous drain of 7.5 mA. The memory circuits of some autoradios may add another 8 mA or so to the quiescent battery drain. The total current of 20 mA will exhaust the battery of an unused vehicle in about 4 months.

It's important to note that even without this current drain unused car batteries self-discharge steadily, and that leaving a battery in a partially discharged state will reduce its capacity permanently. Hence if a classic car is not used for a lengthy period, the battery must be regularly charged with an external trickle charger. Modern chargers have an electronic controller that prevents overcharging if they are left connected to the battery for long periods.

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Alternator

The Montreal was equipped with a claw-pole Bosch K114V55A20 alternator with integral diode rectifier assembly and external voltage regulator. The Type No. 0120400714 that was fitted up to May 1974 and the earlier Type No. 0120400643 fitted after that date are interchangeable. (0120400714, which is labelled 643-714, includes the Bosch 1126600046 pulley and 1126610025 fan).

The speed step-up ratio from the engine crankshaft to the alternator is about 1:1.7. Hence the alternator rotor speed varies from about 1500 rpm when the engine is idling to almost 12,000 rpm when it is redlined. The alternator is rated to supply 55 Amps at a rotor speed of 6000 rpm, while the "20" in the type designation indicates that the current falls to 2/3 of the maximum (37 Amps) at 2000 rpm. The performance characteristic indicates that the alternator can supply 24 Amps at 1500 rpm.

In the case of a charging problem, check first that the drive belt tension is sufficient to prevent slippage. To determine whether the alternator or voltage regulator is at fault, the regulator connector can be removed and the D+ contact bridged to DF. After the engine is started, the voltage at the battery should increase from around 12.8v to 14.1v at an engine speed of 1500 rpm. (A speed of 2000 rpm should not be exceeded when carrying out this test). If the voltage does not rise to this value, the alternator is defective. Otherwise, the problem is with the regulator.

The resistance of the field winding of the alternator, measured from the DF contact to ground, should be 4 ohms +-10%. A high reading is likely to indicate a problem with the brushes. Spare parts for these alternators, such as brushes (Bosch 1127014009) and rectifiers (Bosch 1127320081) are readily available from sources such as Wood Auto Supplies.

Alfa Romeo recommended that when a radio is fitted in a Montreal the alternator suppression capacitor should be changed from a 2.2 uF to a 3 uF one.

In order to cope with the demands of an increased electrical lighting load, Tom Sanor has replaced the original alternator with an 80 Amp unit supplied by J.C. Whitney (Item No. WL268284) for USD 89.99. This appears to be a Delco-Remy 12-SI series 78 Amp machine, a popular model with integrated regulator that was used in many older GM vehicles. The alternator can be mounted in place of the original with suitable spacers and straightening of the upper support bracket. The 12-SI performance curve indicates that it provides somewhat lower output than the Bosch alternator at idling speed. However, a 94 Amp version of this alternator also exists (J.C. Whitney Item No. WL268285, USD 119.99) which can provide 33 Amps at 1500 rpm.

When installing a 12-SI alternator, the original Bosch voltage regulator should be removed and the green wire which was attached to contact D+ of the original alternator should be connected to the warning lamp contact #1 of the Delco-Remy one. The voltage-sense contact #2 of the new alternator is best connected to the battery connection at the starter solenoid but it may alternatively be bridged to the B+ terminal of the alternator.

Gene Brown has replaced the original alternator with a salvaged 105 Amp Delco-Remy CS-130 model. (Delco-Remy Part No. 1101310, AC Delco Part No. 321-385). This model, which was fitted to 1988-90 Buicks, Oldsmobiles and Pontiacs equipped with the 3.8 l V6, is believed to have a similar performance characteristic to the later CS-130D, which can provide 48 Amps at 1500 rpm. The CS-130 is fitted with a poly-groove pulley but the original pulley from the Bosch alternator can be transferred to it.

To mount the CS-130, the lower mounting bracket can be drilled out for a 10 mm bolt or the alternator hole can be sleeved to allow the original 8 mm bolt to be used. A 5 mm spacer is required at the lower mounting point and a 10 mm spacer and longer mounting bolt at the upper bracket, to allow the bracket to be positioned in front of the alternator. Alternatively the upper bracket could be flattened so that it would fit behind the mounting ear of the alternator. Note that different versions of the CS-130 may have mounting ears with different dimensions and orientations other than 6-12 o'clock. In addition to the main BAT terminal, which connects to the red wire in the Montreal, the CS-130 has a connector with S, F, L and P terminals. When running at speed, the alternator is self-excited. To provide battery excitation of the field at low speed, the green wire which connected to the D+ input to the Bosch alternator should be connected to the L terminal of the CS-130. The F and P terminals can be left open while the S terminal, which is used for remote sensing, can be connected to the battery supply at the starter solenoid.

Dave Bramwell has replaced the original alternator with a 65 Amp Bosch AL 25X model, which has an internal voltage regulator. To mount this alternator, the upper mounting bracket must be shortened by about 3 cm and the slot in it widened by 1 mm. The lower mounting bracket does not require modification and the original drive belt can be used.

Joseph Santos-Fernandes has replaced the alternator with a generic type sold under the Lucas brand name. This alternator is provided with adjustable brackets which allow it to be fitted easily in the Montreal, but its performance characteristics are unknown.

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Voltage regulator

The original voltage regulator fitted to the Montreal (Bosch 0190601006 AD1/14V) is an electromechanical type which controls the alternator field current by a vibrating voltage-sensitive switch. This model was fitted to other vehicles in the 1970s and replacements are still available. The resistance from the D+ contact of the regulator to ground (D-) should be about 85 ohms, 36 ohms for the solenoid and 49 ohms for its series compensating resistor.

A plug-compatible version (0190600006) of this voltage regulator with additional radio interference suppression components was also made. These electromechanical regulators have a range of 13.7 - 14.6v and at 20 deg C typically charge at about 14.1v. When replacing the regulator, Bosch recommend fitting type 0192062007, a simple transistor model which has the same physical dimensions and is adjustable over the range 13.9 - 14.9v.

The ideal charging voltage depends on the electrode chemistry of the battery used and its temperature. A higher voltage is desirable at low temperatures and to fully charge "maintenance-free" batteries which have calcium added to the electrodes to reduce outgassing. To avoid battery overheating, or having to top up frequently with water, a lower voltage is more appropriate for traditional lead/antimony batteries or at elevated operating temperatures.

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Ammeter

The ammeter in the Montreal left instrument pod indicates the current flowing to (+) or from (-) the battery, with the exception of that drawn by the starter motor and the horns.

During normal running, the ammeter should register a small positive current flow, indicating that the alternator is supplying the electrical loads of the car and charging the battery. A high positive reading would indicate either a battery that has been discharged, a defective battery, or a faulty voltage regulator causing the alternator output voltage to be too high. A negative reading, on the other hand, would indicate that the alternator is not able to supply all the electrical loads at the current engine speed. (See the "Alternator" section).

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Fuses

At origin the two Montreal fuseboxes were fitted with 8 Amp fuses (2600.70501) in all 16 positions. This rating is marginal for the starting current surge of the radiator cooling fan. A 15 Amp fuse (2600.70502) may be installed in the "Elettroventola" position since it provides adequate protection for the 2.5 mm2 wiring used in this circuit. In the early 1970s similar electric fans were fitted to other cars such as some Mercedes models.

The wires supplying power to the ignition switch and column-mounted light switch are not protected by fuses. For safety, disconnect the car battery when working in the neighbourhood of these switches.

Jaeger stamped the dates of manufacture of the fuseboxes inside the covers, as well as on other components such as the main instruments and steering column switch. These Jaeger component dates can set an earliest limit to the date of assembly of the vehicle.

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Starter

The electric starter (Bosch 0001311036) fitted to the Montreal is a 1 hp GF pre-engaged-drive unit. When the starter solenoid is energised by the ignition switch, the pinion is engaged with the flywheel ring gear by a thrust lever and main battery power is applied to the motor. The ring gear, of overall diam 298 mm, has 140 teeth and the pinion, of diam 25.4 mm, has 9 teeth, giving a reduction ratio of 15.555... A roller-type overrunning clutch decouples the pinion from the starter to protect it when the engine fires. The original pinion (Bosch 1006209052) can be replaced by the type 1006209101 which was fitted to the starters of some later production cars.

When the ignition key is released, a return spring pushes the solenoid plunger to the rest position, disengaging the pinion and opening the main electrical contacts. A mechanical lock on the ignition switch extends the interval between retries to allow time for the pinion to be brought to rest by a disk brake. Wood Auto Supplies can supply a starter solenoid (Type SND1102) that can be used as a replacement for the original Bosch Type 0331302019. Some aftermarket starter solenoids may have a higher inductance than the original, causing more severe arcing at the ignition switch contacts when they open. It is advisable to fit an ignition relay to prolong the life of the contacts and avoid their possibly welding together.

A bolt with a special shank is fitted in the upper hole of the starter mounting flange. To ensure accurate alignment of the starter pinion with the flywheel gear, it should not be replaced with a bolt having a shank of smaller diameter. Engaging the starter a few times before fully tightening the mounting bolts may help to achieve the best alignment.

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Power outlet

Since the battery is located at the rear of the Montreal it is useful to provide an auxiliary power outlet in the engine bay for accessories such as an inspection light or ignition timing strobelamp. Note that with the capacitor discharge ignition system used in the Montreal, battery power is not available at terminal 3 of the ignition coils and the connection of any device there may cause damage to the transistor ignition units. In vehicles without an air conditioner the power outlet socket can be conveniently mounted on the bracket provided for the condenser fan.

A spare blue wire in the cable harness runs to a floating free connector in the vicinity of this bracket. The other end is nicely placed for connection to the battery input (white wire, contact 30) of the heated rear window relay (35). This circuit is protected by the upper fuse in Group A (Lunotto Termico). The socket can be of the standard removable cigar lighter type, for which fused plugs are readily available for accessories which are not already equipped with them at origin.

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Electric windows

Most Montreals were equipped with electrically operated side windows, an option which added DEM 660 to the cost of the car in Germany and CHF 800 in Switzerland. An emergency crank handle was provided to allow the windows to be operated in the event of a failure in their electrical drive mechanism. 140 full turns from top to bottom! Depress the side locking spring on the crank to extract it after use. The crank may be stored in the vehicle glove compartment. A batch of reproduction crank handles was produced by Giorgio Penatti. The window crank of the GTV6 may also be suitable for the Montreal.

For safety reasons, a relay prevents the windows being operated unless the ignition switch is turned on. An overcurrent relay greatly reduces the motor current and torque when the windows reach their limits or encounter an obstruction. Once energised, the relay contacts are held open until the operating switch is released. This is achieved by a reduced current passing through a hold-in coil with a resistance of 22 ohms. Sluggish action of the mechanism can be caused by excessive friction between the glass and the guides. The channel moulding can be lubricated with silicone spray or soap and should be checked for any distortion that could hinder movement.

The stator magnets are secured inside the motor shell by glue. In the case of poor motor performance, check that the magnets have not become detached and moved out of position. Alfa supplied replacement motor, drive and cable as a complete assembly (105.64.55.030.40 right side, 105.64.55.031.40 left side). While NOS parts are still to be found, they are quite expensive as this part is unique to the Montreal. The 1982 GTV-6 and Spider used what appears to be the same motor and drive unit with a different cable length. Giorgio Penatti has described replacing the cable, using a very supple multi-strand flexible cable of about 2 mm diameter. He recommends adding 60 mm diam flanges to the drive reel to ensure that the cable cannot come off it. Total cable length is 3.83 m. The replacement was done in 1994 and is still working perfectly.

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Vent windows

The vent side windows are operated manually in all cars. Reproduction vent window controls can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti. Control knobs of a different design were fitted to some of the last Montreals to be manufactured.

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Window glass

When closing the rear window, take care to apply equal pressure to both sides of the frame, in order to avoid twisting it with a risk of cracking the glass. Charlie Lenore has reported that it is possible to TIG weld a hinge bracket that has become detached from the frame without dismantling the window. The welder used stainless steel rod and made many small welds, allowing the joint to cool between each to avoid cracking the glass.

Different windscreens were fitted to LHD and RHD Montreals. Replacement windscreens for the Montreal can be supplied by Afra (Code 60716763), Europarts (Ref. 10 15 119), Glastec (Product No. 2030AGN), OKP (Products AR 60 010 037/038), Re-Originals (G0015), and Sicurvetro. Replacement rear window glass was available from OKP (Product OKP105646150550), but this product is not available at present. Replacement side windows are only available from parts cars.

Tinted glass was not an option for the Montreal and all the windows, including those of non-A/C cars, have a light green tint. (This is hardly noticeable when looking out through the windows from inside the car, but the coloration is apparent when looking from the outside, when the light rays traverse the glass twice). The G0015 replacement windscreens supplied by Re-Originals are of laminated clear glass and the AR 60 010 037 windscreen supplied by OKP is also of clear glass.

Clips for securing the Montreal windscreen (105.64.59.160.00/03) can be supplied by G. Häckner (P/N 591603) and Stalder & Moser (P/N 163 001 0). Berge Bergesen has found that Nissan 72825-U7400 clips are easily modified to secure the bright trim around the Montreal windscreen. The original welded studs which hold the clips can be replaced by Opel GM 164361 parts which can be secured by a pop riveter.

The plastic trim that covers the rear window hinges is easily broken, but reproduction parts can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti. Giorgio can also supply repro escutcheons for the fixed parts of the hinges.

Replacement felts for the side windows are available by the metre from OKP (product AR 60 004 104). See the following section for rubber window seals.

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Seals

The Montreal windscreen seal (105.64.53.115.00/01) is a one-piece rubber moulding with a rather complex cross-section. Special tool A.9.0051 or equivalent can be used to aid removal of the glass of the windscreen and rear hatch.

A range of seals for the Montreal is available in Italy from Cicognani Srl and Elvezio Esposito Tappezzeria Auto Epoca e Moderne.

Engine compartment, windscreen and rear hatch seals are available from several suppliers, such as Afra, Classic Alfa, Italian Car Parts, OKP and Re-Originals.

Problems with the quality of the fit of some of the reproduction rear hatch seals have been reported.

Rubber seals for the body, including the windscreen, rear window, doors, window channels, engine compartment, radiator, heater, and starter are available from CarGroup Inc, 127 Rellikonstrasse, CH-8124 Maur, Switzerland. Tel. (+4144) 980 2401. Fax. (+4144) 980 3679. They can also supply rubber caps for the front lamps and pedal covers.

Ken Swanstrom has reported that the rubber profile TS3 offered by Auto & Truck Specialties (The Clip House) is suitable for the upper edge of the firewall.

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Demister

The electrically heated demister grid of the Montreal tailgate should have a resistance of about 1 ohm (about 10 ohms per conductor). After many years, deterioration of parts of the conductors bonded to the glass (particularly in the curved region at each side of the tailgate) can result in the resistance rising to such values that the demister is no longer effective.

The defective conductor areas can be repaired by the application of a silver-loaded epoxy or conductive varnish, such as that marketed by Loctite (Permatex) as "Quick grid rear window defogger repair kit", Part No. 15067. This can be supplied by auto factors such as J.C. Whitney. The Loctite product "Circuit+", Cat. No. 405582, which is manufactured in France by Loctite Senlis, is exactly the same and is more readily available in some European countries.

The demister electrical connections are shown incorrectly in the circuit diagrams in all the owner manuals. The chassis ground is of course connected to the bus at the opposite side of the grid from the power bus, and not as shown.

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Window struts

The Corte & Cosso supporting struts for the Montreal rear window tend to weaken with age due to gas leakage. They can be replaced with Gabriel Gaslift Type 4146, each fitted at the lower end with double clevis 358271 and at the upper end with clevis 358270. Hannes Paling recommends charging these struts for a force of 170 N.

Giorgio Penatti can supply repro gas struts charged to a nominal force of 200 N. The struts have a cylinder diameter of 10mm instead of 11.5mm, but all the important dimensions are very similar to the originals.

StrongArm 4744 Buick/Cadillac/Oldsmobile hood lift supports can be used for the Montreal rear window. They are available for less than USD 20 each from several US suppliers.

Victor Hugo Trein offers struts of unknown origin for USD 200 per pair including international shipping from Brazil.

Keith Jolly in Tasmania had the original struts recharged to 300 N each using a special technique that leaves no visible marks on the body of the struts. The cost for recharging the pair was AUD 50.

In Canada, the struts can be refurbished by Frank Irvine of StrutWise at a cost of CAD 150 each.

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Wipers

The windscreen wipers (116.00.65.503.04, Bosch Part No. 3 398 111 178-884) originally specified for the Montreal, a 40 cm bright plated model with metal clips for the 9 mm wide wiper arms, are less readily available than today's standard black pattern with plastic clips. The nearest equivalent Bosch wipers in current production are Part No. 3 397 118 610. Satisfactory substitutes for the original wipers are 41 cm Arman Type 0.13.630 67A which are manufactured today as replacement parts for 1970- Alfettas. Note that Arman Type 0.13.620.64A, although marked on the package as being suitable for the Montreal, are not in fact appropriate as they have 7 mm instead of 9 mm clips. Replacement polyethylene caps for the wiper arms can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti.

To remove the air inlet shield to access the central wiper mechanism or the windscreen washer nozzle, stop the wipers in the vertical position by pulling the fuse (Tergicristallo) at the appropriate moment to defeat the self-parking mechanism. After disconnecting the feed hose at the coupler nipple and removing the securing hardware the shield can then just be manoeuvred out from under the lower windscreen panel. The plastic hose becomes brittle with age and should be replaced with new 4 mm ID PVC tubing to prevent leakage into the heater inlet.

Spurious windscreen wiper sweeps could be caused if the carpet in the driver's footwell is not positioned to clear the windscreen washer foot switch.

The windscreen wiper motor is a dual-speed Bosch 0 390 346 087 model with a 0 335 320 001 controller. A defective motor may be directly replaced with that from an Alfa 75 with no changes other than the wiring connector. The connections are as follows:

The parking switch connects 31b to 53a (the battery voltage) except when the wipers are in the parked position, when it connects 31b to 31 (ground). The controller connects 31b to 53 when the wipers are switched off. This causes the wipers to keep running at the slow speed until the parking switch changes over to 31 to stop them rapidly.

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Locks

The early Montreal door handles (105.64.55.085.00/01 right, 105.64.55.086.00/01 left) with a single chromed plate are less readily available, especially as pairs operated by the same key, than the later twin-plate type. In 1976 Alfa Romeo recommended that the twin-plate type 105.64.55.085/086.10 (GR codes 60716421/24) can be fitted as replacements. In the case of the version with the central hole shown arrowed here, minor modifications are required, and the hole for the adjustment screw must be drilled out and tapped M5. The modifications are not necessary for the version shown arrowed here. The twin-plate 1977 Alfetta types 119.00.55.085.01 left, 119.00.55.086.01 right (GR codes 60735642/43) are also compatible. Different mounting brackets, Part Nos. 116.10.55.638/639.00, (shown here red instead of black) are required for this type. Replacement door locks can be supplied by René Richner.

When replacing one of a pair of locks, automobile locksmiths can readily adapt the cylinder of the lock to match a given key provided it is of the same type. As different key types were used with Alfa Romeo door locks of the same external appearance, check that the original key can be inserted (even though it cannot be turned) when buying a replacement lock. In countries in which Alfa Romeo cars are sold, such locksmiths can also supply SAFE key blanks with the Alfa Romeo logo at lower cost than Alfa dealerships, and can cut them from the key code.

Enrico Barbetti of the Casa della Chiave in Udine, Italy, can supply blanks or cut keys for the Montreal ignition and door locks. The SIPEA ignition keys can be supplied with or without the plastic head cover, while all styles and profiles of the SAFE door keys are available. Blanks cost from EUR 6 to EUR 10 each. Keys can be cut electronically from their codes if the owner sends Enrico a digital photo of the key showing its code. Compatible key blanks are also available from Keyprof Luke in Holland and Keys4Classics in Australia.

To exchange door handles remove the interior door trim and then the 3 nuts at the rear of the lock. After the modifications rebuild with the new lock and reset the adjustment screw as necessary before refitting the trim.

Long torsion rods at the front of the car make the bonnet easier to raise and reduce the weight at each catch to about 2.5kg. The catches incorporate spring toggles which force the bonnet to open by about 13mm when they are released. If it fails to do so, check the alignment between the catches and the bonnet hooks which engage with them.

Nylon lines are provided to allow the catches of the bonnet and the rear hatch to be released in the event of breakage of the normal operating cables. The lines for the rear hatch are routed through a tube to the cavity behind the left side internal air grille. Note that there are individual nylon lines to each catch so that they can be manipulated independently.

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Door stops

The rubberized covering of the Montreal door straps (105.64.55.521.00/01) tends to disintegrate with time, so that the straps are no longer able to hold the doors in the open position. Although the door stops of other Alfa Romeo models such as Spiders have a similar mechanism, their straps are somewhat too long for the Montreal. Reproduction straps for the Montreal can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti.

Dirk & Hannelore Nehme have replaced the original door stops with Daimler Benz Type A1267200516. The ends of the straps have to be cut to fit the space in the door and suitable spacers fabricated.

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Mirrors

External rear view mirrors were normally only fitted to the Montreal as accessories. The original heavily-chromed Marini 4861017 type are still readily available (about CHF 50). For some drivers, a better mirror position is obtained by moving them 4.5 cm forwards simply by turning the supporting base around. The door skin is quite thin and when fitting a mirror it is best to fabricate a reinforcement plate equipped with captive 4 mm nuts which can be permanently secured inside the door.

The internal rear view mirror also houses a courtesy light. The power wire for the light is routed past the mirror support bracket and can easily short-circuit to the chassis, taking out the radio and all the other courtesy, map and door lights. This inconvenience can be avoided by cutting a slot specifically for the wire and reinforcing its insulation.

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Air intakes

Alfa Romeo claimed that the relatively straight ram air intake ducts leading from the nose of the car to the air cleaner box contribute to maximising the dynamic efficiency of the induction of the Montreal engine. The long velocity stacks extend almost all the way up to the air filters. The multiple air intake stacks of the Montreal engine form a Helmholtz resonator with the air cleaner box and engine power will be slightly diminished if the box is removed.

The original air inlet hoses were made of a steel wire reinforced rubber-coated fabric material which becomes hard with age. They may be replaced by modern synthetic flexible hose of inside diameter about 52 mm, which is obtainable from specialist factors such as Angst+Pfister (Part No. 06 5451 3052) in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Holland, Italy and Switzerland, or J.C. Whitney (SKU# 19ZX0349P) in the USA. A multi-ply hose with its reinforcing wire on the outside should be chosen, so that the internal wall of the tube is fairly smooth.

Replacement air inlet hoses can be supplied by Müller Service.

Tom Sanor reports that suitable flexible hose is available from Aircraft Spruce & Speciality. (Basic "CAT" type Aeroduct). Michael Lamm found that the 2-inch ID pre-heater ducting for Ford trucks that is made by Motormite (Part No. 96034) and sold by outlets such as Auto Zone is very suitable and has an aspect similar to the original hoses.

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Air filter

The air cleaner box fitted to early Montreal engines had a single idling air equalizer at the rear, while later engines were equipped with a pair of equalizers, one on each air intake. To rationalize spares stocking, a modified air cleaner box (Part No. 105.64.08.011.01, GR Code 60715769) was introduced in 1973 which is fitted with mounting studs for all the equalizers but in which the inlet holes are undrilled. To substitute an older unit, drill out a 9 mm dia inlet hole at the rear. To substitute the later unit, drill out 5 mm dia inlet holes on each side. The holes should of course be midway between the equalizer mounting studs.

Replacement air filter elements (Tecnocar A-64 or equivalent) are readily available for about CHF 53 per pair. The Part No., shown in early 1971 editions of the parts catalogue as 105.64.08.011.00/05, was altered to 105.64.08.011.00/20 in later printings without updating the modification record. The GR Code is 60715768.

To respray the air cleaner cover, which is the engine component most in evidence when the bonnet is opened, first drill out the 10 rivets securing the anodised aluminium labels. Re-attach the labels with M2.5 screws having a maximum length of 4 mm since 6 of them are located just above the air filter elements.

Reproduction wing nuts for securing the top cover of the air cleaner box can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti. Replacement O-rings for sealing the air cleaner to the throttle units are available from Dirk & Hannelore Nehme.

Because of the frequency with which the air cleaner box is removed for engine access, thread damage to the mounting studs in the alloy inlet manifolds is common. To remove a defective stud, secure a pair of locknuts on a sound section of thread and wrench the lower nut. Replace with a 30 mm M8 stud having a maximum thread length on the manifold side of 10 mm.

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Idling

Idling adjustments should be made only after the engine tuning, throttle, timing and Spica setup have been completed, the operating mixture having been optimised with the Spica FCS at 2500 rpm. The Spica will then deliver the correct idling fuel rate, and it is only necessary to adjust the idling airflow. Do not be tempted to adjust the throttle stop to set the idle speed. When idling after warmup, the throttle butterflies should be just closed and the engine should breathe entirely through the idling air tubes. During the engine warmup phase, the Spica control arm holds the throttle butterflies slightly open to obtain a satisfactory idle. A defective Spica TA can cause high idling speed if its plunger does not project sufficiently to allow the idle limit screw to rest on the stop after warmup. In the absence of an exhaust gas analyzer (see Emission section) adjust the idling air for the highest idle speed which does not result in roughness or hunting due to an over-lean mixture.

Excessively high idle speed after a period of fast running can be caused by the ignition timing failing to return to full retard. After many years the grease in the mechanical advance mechanism tends to clog and the mechanism should be cleaned and lubricated from time to time to avoid sluggish operation. Note that the engine idle speed of a Montreal fitted with an air conditioner should be set with the compressor in operation. The English version of the Shop Manual describes idle adjustment "on the beach" (a pleasant alternative to on the bench?).

Ensure that the idling air tubes are routed such that they cannot be squeezed between the air cleaner box and the fuel injector lines, pinching off the idling air supply for one of the cylinders. In the case of high idling speed, possibly varying with temperature, check for leaks in any of the idling air tubes or a defective equaliser O-ring.

The earlier type of Montreal idling air equalizer mounted at the rear of the air cleaner box is provided with a single adjustment screw to allow the idling airflow to be regulated. With the later twin equalizers mounted on the air intakes the idling air is controlled by the adjustment of the inlet pipe union, which compresses an O-ring in each equalizer block, and by the size of the apertures communicating with the intakes to the air cleaner box. The latter may be varied by punching central holes of different diameters (typically 3.5 - 5 mm) in the equalizer block mounting gaskets. In this case I recommend overdrilling the (nominally 5 mm diameter) holes in the air intakes to ensure that the gasket hole diameter is determinant and the overall apertures are balanced on the two sides of the engine despite centering tolerances. When testing the engine with the air cleaner box removed, the gaskets should be attached to the equaliser blocks so that the resistance to airflow is the same as when the equaliser blocks are mounted on the air intakes.

The condition of the O-rings should be monitored as particles from them can partially obstruct the idling air channels if they begin to disintegrate. If this prevents a cylinder from firing during idle the resultant flooding may prevent it from firing when the throttles are opened also. Replacement O-rings can easily be cut from 3.5 mm thick synthetic rubber that will be stable with time and temperature. The external diameter is about 12.5 mm. The central hole diameter will depend on the compressibility of the material - I suggest punching 2 mm diameter to start with and increasing the diameter (to a maximum of 5 or 6 mm) until screwing the pipe union in and out gives a smooth idling adjustment. Replacement O-rings can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti, and the O-ring 53400 offered by International Auto Parts for the Spica-injected 1750 GTV may also be suitable for the Montreal. Ensure that the washer is mounted on the outer side of the O-ring, not the inner side, so that screwing in the pipe union can force the O-ring into the tapered section to compress it radially.

Berge Bergesen reports that the earlier type of adjuster can be made more reliable by modifying the adjustment screw and dispensing with the O-ring. The end of the screw can be tapered over a length of 6 mm to a final diameter of 10 mm and the central hole blocked off. Giorgio Penatti can supply modified adjustment screws, and Horace Varner has successfully produced a replacement screw to this design.

Scott Slavin has replaced the O-rings in the later type of equalisers by small adjustable valves on each input pipe. Agusti Vilella has used a dual valve which has a single adjustment for both idling air paths.

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Fuel filters

The Montreal fuel tank filter protects the fuel pumps and provides the first line of defence for the delicate Spica injector pumping elements. It has been found that the original Tecnocar B-64 fuel tank filter element (105.64.32.026.01) tends to soften and disintegrate with time. Tiny paper particles can then enter the fuel lines and lead to a blockage. Alfa Romeo recommended that the filter element should be replaced by the later type (105.64.32.026.02, GR Code 60716130) made of felt and, if the original shows any signs of deterioration, the fuel lines should be thoroughly cleaned out. Modern paper filter elements do not suffer from this problem. They can be supplied by Müller Service in Switzerland (CHF 45 each) and from G. Häckner for EUR 31.90. Coarser metal gauze filter elements are not suitable. Classic Alfa can supply tank filter elements with a moulded neoprene seal for GBP 27.50. Reproduction gaskets are available from Müller Service.

The fuel tank should be emptied by removing the outlet union before removing the tank filter flange. While the fuel is drained for replacement of the tank filter element, check that the 2.4 mm diameter restrictor orifice in the return line has not become blocked, impeding proper fuel circulation. New copper sealing rings of about 1.5 mm thickness (16.2 x 22.4 mm for the supply, 12.2 x 18 mm for the return) should be fitted when the banjo bolts are replaced.

Replacement elements (105.50.04.600.00, GR Code 60715010) for the main fuel filter in the engine compartment are readily obtainable (Universal Filter Italiana 26.617.00, FISPA 1584, FIAAM FA 4205/2, FRAM C4518, Purolator LI 1584) for about CHF 20, and should be changed frequently to protect the very fine tolerances in the Spica pump. In 1973 the original filter assembly (105.64.04.060.00, GR Code 60715664) was replaced by a modified unit (105.64.04.060.01, GR Code 60715665) with water separation properties. This type should be checked for water collection at intervals and emptied.

The sealing washer on the retaining bolt "A" (originally 2340.32232, later 105.64.04.060.01/06 - GR Code 60715669) should be renewed when the filter housing is opened and the bolt retorqued to 1.6 mkg without lubrication of the washer. Replacement 80mm dia main seals for the filter canister are provided with the filter elements supplied by Classic Alfa and AMS Montreal-Service. Use a mirror to verify that the seal is correctly seated and check for leakage after replacing the filter canister, as any leakage of fuel in the engine compartment is highly dangerous.

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Fuel pumps

The twin electric gasoline fuel pumps fitted to the Montreal (GFP274) are Bosch type 0 580 970 001 or 0 580 970 003. (One of each type may be found fitted to some vehicles). The 001 version usually has a square pump housing whereas the 003 version, which included a securing clip that is not required for the Montreal, has a round one. The pumps operate at 2800 rpm at 12v, and each can deliver about 112 litres/hour (1 litre in 32 secs) at a pressure of 1.5 kg/cm2 at this voltage. The combined flow rate of the two pumps is required to ensure adequate cooling by fuel recirculation, especially when driving hard in hot weather with a low fuel tank.

Both pumps must be in good order to ensure that adequate fuel recirculation can be maintained at high engine rpm. Each pump draws 2.5 Amps at 12v. The electrical connections must be sound and to minimise voltage drop it can be advantageous to run a separate ground wire to the pumps directly from the battery connection to the chassis. The nominal working fuel pressure at the input to the Montreal Spica injector is 1.5 kg/cm2 (max 1.85 kg/cm2), somewhat higher than for 4-cylinder Spica systems (1.1 - 1.2 kg/cm2). The fuel pressure switch activates the warning light if the pressure falls below about 0.5 kg/cm2. Hence the warning light can indicate unduly low pressure caused, for example, by a blocked fuel filter. But the light does not guarantee correct fuel pressure, and without such a blockage it will remain extinguished even if one of the two fuel pumps is not operating. The multiple hose connections at the pumps should be checked regularly for leakage. To ensure a good seal, 9 mm ID hose should be used for the supply ports and 7 mm ID hose for the delivery and return ports of the pumps. Defective rubber mounts for the fuel pump clamp can be replaced by the oil tank mounts for Harley Davidson motorcycles.

To protect the pumps, it is important that the fuel tank filter be in good condition. Hannes Paling has found that a common cause of reduced performance can be contamination of the spring-loaded valve which controls the fuel flow from the Delivery (D) and Return (R) ports. As well as opening the return port if the pressure exceeds about 2 bar, this valve acts as a stop valve on the delivery port when the pump is not running. The valve has been known to stick with the delivery port closed or with the return port open! This picture shows the valve components in the order of assembly, with a new aluminium end cap. After assembly, the parts can be clamped to compress the rubber seal in the end cap and allow the cap to be crimped in position.

The gap between the impeller and the rollers should be about 0.35 mm. The O-ring is 29.87 mm ID x 1.78 mm diam, 70 shore hardness. When re-assembling the pump parts, the screws should be tightened while moving the front part of the pump around with the motor running until it sounds at its best. Commutator and brush wear is slight and the electrical parts of the pump are normally reliable.

If non-inflammable calibration fluid is not available when testing the fuel pumps out of the car, white spirit (Stoddard solvent) or paraffin oil (kerosene) can be used as it has a similar viscosity to gasoline. Alternatively the pumps can be tested while connected to the car by extended fuel hoses and electrical connections. Before such testing, be sure to clean up any spilt fuel and ensure that the electrical connections and all hose clamps are secure. Have a second person check for fuel leaks immediately the ignition is turned on and keep a fire extinguisher to hand just in case!

The same Bosch pumps were fitted to certain fuel-injected Porsche 911s (Porsche type 901 608 105 00) and the Carrera 2.7 S, the Peugeot 504 TI and the US-spec Alfa 2000 Spider and 1975-1979 Alfetta. While new pumps can still be supplied by some distributors, they may cost as much as USD 490 each. A new pump requires several hours running to bed in and deliver maximum flow rate. In the USA, leaking pumps can be rebuilt by Fuel Parts in Rancho Mirage, California. Rebuilt pumps can also be supplied by Fuel Injection Corporation in Livermore, California (email). Beware new reproduction fuel pumps that are of inferior quality and may have the ports in a different order from the Bosch originals.

Some Montreal owners have replaced the original twin pumps with a single fuel pump for an Alfa Romeo GTV6 or 75 (Milano). In view of the lower flow rate of the 75 pump, Max Gilera fitted an adjustable external pressure regulator in the return fuel line from the Spica injector. While this allows the pressure at the input to the Spica to be raised to the nominal value, the lower flow rate reduces the cooling by recirculating fuel. Victor Hugo Trein fitted a pair of these pumps to ensure adequate cooling under all cirumstances.

Even with the pair of original pumps, Peter Schweiss experienced fuel vapour problems under extreme conditions. He solved this by fitting his Montreal with an additional cooler in the return fuel line to the tank.

Walbro manufacture a single fuel pump (Type GSL392) which is capable of the same flow rate as the original pair. It is available as a kit complete with sound insulator, mounting brackets and a choice of inlet and outlet fittings. For safety reasons, any such fuel pump that only has a high pressure internal pressure relief valve should be fitted with an external one, plumbed to return excess fuel to the top of the fuel tank. Jules Becker has fitted his Montreal with a GSL392 pump and an adjustable SimFlo bypass regulator. Giorgio Penatti can supply a complete kit comprising a Walbro GSL392 fuel pump and a suitable adjustable bypass pressure regulator of his own design, with all the fittings for interconnecting the parts and attaching the Montreal hoses.

In the Montreal the calibrated orifice which controls the fuel pressure is located in the return inlet to the fuel tank (and not directly at the outlet of the Spica pump as in 4-cyl systems). The orifice, which has a diameter of 2.4 mm, directs the recirculated fuel tangentially into the base of a centrifuge cylinder to promote devaporisation and cooling. For this reason, the orifice should not be removed or drilled out, even if the fuel circuit is modified.

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Fuel gauge

The fuel gauge is operated by the current flowing to chassis ground through the level sender in the fuel tank, whose resistance varies with the height of the float. When the tank is full, the resistance is near zero and the gauge should read '1'. The resistance at intermediate readings is as follows: 3/4: 18 ohms, 1/2: 50 ohms, 1/4: 120 ohms, 0: 250 ohms.

In the case of malfunction, ensure that the ground wire at the level sender is sound and that the wires from the level sender and Riserva switch in the tank are not trapped under the cover disc, but routed through the raised tunnel in its periphery. Ken Swanstrom found that a false fuel level reading was cured by cleaning the resistive track of accumulated varnish. Nick Holding reports that one of the level senders sold for the Alfa Spider can be fitted to the Montreal if the float arm is bent to suit the deeper Montreal fuel tank.

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Fuel vapour separator

Fuel vapour is carried from the filler neck of the fuel tank to a fuel vapour separator located behind the right rear wheel arch. Condensed fuel from the lower port of the separator is returned to the tank via a tube which passes down the inside of the filler neck. Uncondensed vapour is vented to the atmosphere via a tube connected to the upper port which exits just forward of the drain from the fuel filler housing.

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Filler cap

The fuel tank filler cap (105.62.32.018.00 in Tav. 14 drawing, 105.62.32.018.01 in the text) is unique to the Montreal and in spite of the labelling on one aftermarket product for other 105-series cars it cannot be fitted to it. However, Manos Protonotarios reports that the fuel filler cap of the Alfetta GTV, which can be locked with a key, can be fitted to the Montreal. The filler cap of the 1986 BMW 325 can be used if the lugs are bent slightly to make a snugger fit. Val Dietrich has found that the Murray Ultra fuel cap #6810 fits well.

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Fire risk

The condition of all the flexible and rigid fuel lines should be checked regularly. With age, cracks can occur in any of the hoses including those interconnecting the fuel pumps and the tank. Since the electric fuel pumps continuously circulate a large volume of fuel through the Spica injection pump for cooling purposes, a fuel line rupture in the engine compartment can result in a serious deflagration. The flexible hoses in the engine compartment should be of a type that has a smooth internal wall and resists fuel, temperature and pressure, such as Angst+Pfister Benolpress Type 06.5324.2010. (Internal diameter 10mm, external diameter 18mm). High quality hose clips should be used. For safety reasons, if the original fuel pumps are replaced by one that only has a high pressure internal pressure relief valve, it should be fitted with an external bypass regulator plumbed to return excess fuel to the top of the fuel tank.

Carrying a vehicle fire extinguisher could prove a wise precaution. In the event of a fire the ignition should immediately be switched off to cut the fuel pumps. The steering wheel lock will not be applied provided the key is not removed from the switch.

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Clutch

The hydraulically-operated Fichtel & Sachs clutch fitted to the Montreal is of a heavier-duty design than that equipping 4-cylinder cars. But it is light to operate and has a very smooth action.

Note that in Alfa Romeo Montreal literature the clutch disc is referred to as the "driven plate" while the pressure plate is called the "clutch". The release bearing ("throwout bearing") is the same as that fitted to most Alfa models of this vintage. Since it is continuously in contact with the diaphragm spring of the pressure plate, clutch wear is automatically taken up and no adjustment is required.

The clutch disc thickness when new is about 10 mm and the wear limit is 7 mm. Clutch lifetime varies greatly with driving conditions but 100,000 km is not unusual for the Montreal. In the original 1971 edition of the Montreal parts catalogue a facing kit (105.64.12.032.01/50) for the clutch disc was illustrated but this was removed in the September 1973 revision when the clutch disc Part No. was changed from 105.64.12.032.01 to 105.64.12.032.03. The internal and external diameters of the clutch disc facing are 150.5 mm and 228 mm, while the corresponding dimensions of the machined surface of the pressure plate are 149.5 mm and 230 mm. Jimmy Cornet has reported receiving a replacement clutch disc of slightly larger diameter which tended to touch the casing.

The Part Nos of the clutch components are as follows:

The Montreal clutch can be replaced from below the car by dropping the gearbox with the engine in place (see the following section). A mandrel equivalent to Alfa Romeo special tool A.4.0133 can be used to ensure that the clutch disc is accurately centred before fully tightening the pressure plate screws. With a team of three, Philip Hehir has done clutch replacement at the side of a race track in two hours.

Breakage of the clutch pedal pivot shaft (105.64.44.030.03) at the weld with the actuating lever is not uncommon. Compatible replacement pivot shafts are available from International Auto Parts for USD 48.25 (Part No. 06751000). A replacement pivot shaft of stronger design can be supplied by John Ortakales for USD 55 plus shipping. Len Leeb has described a procedure for replacing the pivot shaft without opening the hydraulic lines. Before breakage occurs, the joint between the shaft and the lever can be strengthened by welding on the inside of the lever where the shaft diameter is greater than on the outside. After breakage, it is difficult to ensure the correct orientation of the lever on the shaft to make a weld repair. The clutch pedal cover is the same as that fitted to all other 105-series cars and replacements are readily available at low cost.

While the clutch slave cylinder (ATE 03.2525-1901.3) has the same 1-inch (25.4 mm) bore as that fitted to many other Alfa Romeo models, the Montreal version has a longer 76 mm pushrod and a longer cylinder that permits a stroke of 17-19 mm, compared with 11 mm for the version for 4-cylinder cars. The more readily available shorter slave cylinder can just be used as a replacement if it is fitted with a pushrod of length about 70-72 mm. The margin for tolerances is quite small. With a shorter pushrod, the piston will be near to projecting from the cylinder when disengaging a new clutch. With a longer pushrod, the piston may bottom in the cylinder before a used clutch has reached the wear limit. Replacement clutch slave cylinders with the same length as the original can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti.

Alternatively, the original slave cylinder can be resleeved in brass by brake cylinder specialists such as Sierra Speciality (USD 50), White Post Restorations or J & L Spares. Stainless steel slave cylinders have been made in the Netherlands and are available for EUR 200 from Gert van Kooten. Classic Alfa have indicated that in due course they may be able to supply a clutch slave cylinder that can be adapted to the Montreal, other 105-series cars and the Alfetta. The ATE rebuild kit for the 4-cylinder car version of the slave cylinder is compatible with the longer version fitted to the Montreal.

The Montreal clutch master cylinder (ATE 03.2422-2801.3, Benditalia 6 06495) has a larger 7/8-inch (22.23 mm) bore than the 11/16-inch (17.46 mm) one (ATE 03.2417.0301.3) fitted to other 105-series cars. Since the original part is not easily obtainable, several vendors propose the 11/16-inch bore cylinder as a Montreal replacement. Its use will result in somewhat longer pedal travel and possibly marginal disengagement when the clutch disc is new. A replacement master cylinder with the correct 7/8-inch bore can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti.

Alternatively an Alfetta master cylinder with a 3/4-inch (19.05 mm) bore can be adapted if the input shaft is lengthened. To ensure an adequate slave piston stroke when a master cylinder of bore less than 7/8-inch is used, Mark Wallis has suggested the use of the "long throw" PE2091 slave cylinder manufactured by Pantera East. These 7/8-inch bore slave cylinders are made of 304 stainless steel and can be supplied without the pushrod for USD 130. Müller Service can supply a clutch slave and master cylinder which are claimed to be compatible with the Montreal although of different appearance to the original.

The clutch bleed screw on the slave cylinder is rather inaccessible when the cylinder is mounted on the bell housing with the screw at the top. Gene Brown has described a method of bleeding the clutch and adjusting the free play with the cylinder removed.

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Gearbox

The Montreal is equipped with a ZF 5-speed Synchroma-Gearbox of type S 5-18/3. For use in other vehicles, different versions of this gearbox were produced with a variety of gear ratios and with mechanisms for steering column and either central or set-back floor shift. A lateral power take-off option was also available for the version with central floor shift for use in light commercial vehicles. The particular version of the gearbox fitted to the Montreal is Ref 1255 003 019 and this number should be quoted when ordering spare parts from ZF.

The gear ratios in any ZF box are indicated on a label on the left side. For the Montreal they were normally 2.99, 1.76, 1.30, 1.00 and 0.87:1, reverse 3.64 or 3.67:1. The differential ratio is 4.1:1 so that the overall drive ratio in 5th gear is 3.57:1. Much higher gear ratios are found in boxes of this type fitted to light commercial vehicles, while the version fitted to the Alfa 6 (which had a differential ratio of 4.55:1) had gear ratios 3.42, 1.94, 1.39, 1.00 and 0.795:1, reverse 3.66:1, and a shorter shift set-back. Early versions of the Maserati Biturbo (launched at end 1981) were fitted with a similar gearbox having ratios 3.42, 1.94, 1.39, 1.00 and 0.87:1, reverse 3.67:1, and an electronic instead of mechanical speedometer drive. For 195/70 VR14X tyres having an average circumference under load of 1.912 m, the theoretical relationship between road speed and engine speed for the Montreal in 5th gear is about 32.3 km/h per 1000 rpm (6800 rpm for 220 km/h).

Except when used with an engine tuned beyond the normal 200 bhp, the Montreal gearbox proves generally reliable. Gene Brown has experienced shift fork breakage and premature wear of the reverse gear idler shaft (105.64.13.105.00/01) has been reported by several owners. The ZF Part No. of this shaft is 1255 305 027, not 1255 305 024 as indicated in the Montreal Parts Catalogue. While spare shafts are no longer stocked by ZF, they can be manufactured to order for EUR 105 plus tax. Some spare parts can be purchased through the ZF national service station in your country. ZF also operate a worldwide "Virtual spare parts store" through which they claim that every spare part for any of their products is available by the web. To submit an inquiry, click on "Products & Services/Service Portfolio" on the ZF website and select "Inquiries - Replacement Part Request" from the menus. Enter 1255 003 019 in the form as the "type of unit" for the Montreal gearbox.

Individual bearings, gasket kits, oil seals, synchro rings and a gearbox rebuild kit can be supplied by BearingKits. Suitable shims can be supplied by McMaster-Carr.

In the Montreal Parts Catalogue, the ball bearings of the direct drive input shaft and the main output shaft are listed with the same Part No. (105.64.13.223.00/01, ZF Ref 0635 333 017). In fact, although they have the same dimensions, the input bearing (SKF 305604 B) is a four-point angular contact split-race type having a greater axial thrust rating than the output one (FAG 6306 N). When rebuilding the gearbox of his race Montreal, Philip Hehir fitted the following gears: Input shaft - FAG QJ 306 MA, Layshaft - 30206A J2/Q, Output shaft - SKF 306NR, Mainshaft needle rollers - SKF K 23x35x16.

The Montreal version of the gearbox has an additional peg welded to the gear change extension which eliminates any possibility of contact with the rotating output flange.

ZF published a 35-page English language Assembly, maintenance and operating instructions manual (9MB PDF file) for the S 5-18/3 gearbox. Original manuals (Ref 1255 751 101) may still be available from some national service stations of ZF Friedrichshafen AG. Alfa Romeo's 44-page repair manual for the gearbox was published in several languages (DIASS No. 1853 for the Italian version - September 1972, DIASS No. 1854 for the French version - February 1974, DIASS No. 1856 for the German version - August 1973).

For service, the Montreal gearbox can be removed from below the car while leaving the engine in place. The gear lever knob is a push fit and can be removed by turning and rocking it while pulling upwards. The gear lever should be taken off by removing the turret assembly from inside the car. The speedometer cable and attachment plates should be removed from the gearbox as well as the clutch slave cylinder, the distributor and the protective plate from the lower front of the bell housing. After removing the centre exhaust sections, the front of the engine should be jacked up as far as possible and the gearbox rotated to the right by about 90 deg to allow it to be dropped. The gearbox weighs about 33 kg. Conversely the engine, complete with the exhaust manifolds, can be removed while leaving the gearbox in place if it is jacked up slightly.

Reproduction Montreal gear lever knobs can be supplied by Mount Carmel Spares. The rubber boot (105.64.13.618.01) of the Montreal gear lever differs from the versions that were fitted to other 105-series cars. However, the straight version that was fitted to several other models is only a little smaller in diameter and can be stretched to fit. The GB021 type supplied by Classic Alfa is suitable.

Minor oil leakage from the gearbox is quite common and Alfa Romeo recommended checking the level and topping up every 6000 km. A gasket and seal set (Ref 1255 200 933 01) was produced by ZF, but it is no longer available from the manufacturer. It contains 1 large and 3 small gaskets, 2 copper sealing rings for the drain plugs, 1 large O ring for the speedometer bush, 6 small O rings for the selector fork pivots and 1 metal/synthetic output shaft and 1 synthetic input shaft oil seal. The large gasket goes between the two main sections of the gearbox housing. The gaskets for the rear (speedo) cover and the small front cover (centralising flange) are not included as they are now replaced by sealing compound such as ZF 7000 798 505 (30 ml tube).

Movement of the gear lever relative to the central console when driving can be caused by deterioration of the gearbox support (105.64.13.080.02). Reproduction supports can be supplied by Classic Alfa, AFRA and OKP.

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Engine mounts

The Montreal engine mounts should be checked occasionally for deterioration of the rubber isolation. Sets of repro mounts with stainless steel plates and NR65 rubber can be supplied by Achim Agne for EUR 95 plus shipping. Engine mounts are also offered by several other suppliers such as Classic Alfa (MN045) and AFRA (60715631/2).

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Guibo

The flexible rubber doughnut (guibo) that couples the output shaft of the gearbox to the propeller shaft is larger than that fitted to 4-cylinder 105-series cars, and is secured by 8 bolts instead of 6. The guibo has a long life but should be inspected regularly for cracks.

If special tool A.2.0315 is not available, a large hose clamp can be used to compress the guibo while it is being removed. The compression band of the replacement guibo should not be detached until it has been installed.

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Propeller shaft

The centre bearing of the Montreal propeller shaft (105.39.15.123.00) is the same as that of other 105-series cars, but the bearing mounting (105.64.15.127.00) has stiffer rubber than the 105.48.15.127.00 version fitted to these less powerful vehicles. The heavy-duty centre support (GB029) supplied by Classic Alfa is a suitable replacement. Before installing the support, ensure that the fixing hole positions allow it to be centred accurately.

When reassembling the propeller shaft, ensure that the U-joints are correctly phased by aligning the arrows stamped on each side of the slip joint. The yokes of the U-joints at each end of the shaft should be parallel to each other.

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Oils

Relatively frequent oil changes are very desirable to prolong the life of a classic car like the Montreal. Before starting the oil changes, procure new copper sealing washers for all the fill and drain plugs. The sizes required are approximately:

If a washer is not available, the original one can be re-used if it is annealed. Heat the washer with a torch until it becomes red, allow to cool and then remove surface oxide before installing.

All the oils should be drained when hot, taking appropriate precautions. The oil quantities required for refilling are approximately:

Alfa Romeo recommended changing the engine oil and filter at intervals of 6000 km or 6 months. Montreal owners have reported satisfactory results with a wide variety of engine oils ranging from Castrol 15-50 to fully synthetic 10-40. For use in colder climates, a multigrade oil with a "W" (Winter) rating is recommended as it has specific cold-flow properties. Even for such a lubricant, the viscosity at 0 deg C can be about 30 times that at the operating temperature, so it is advisable not to exploit the engine fully until it has warmed up. In general it is best to use the narrowest viscosity span that is appropriate for the temperatures you will meet. I currently use Mobil Super S 10W-40 semi-synthetic engine oil with ZDDPlus additive. As oil tends to gravitate to the sump when the car is not in use, it is important to run the engine for a few minutues before checking the oil level with the reservoir dipstick. The sump plug takes a 19 mm socket wrench and the oil reservoir drain plug a 12 mm or 14 mm hex key.

The low ZDDP levels in most modern oil formulations can be compensated by the addition of a little ZDDP additive or assembly oil at each oil change. Note that a high zinc concentration does not provide increased wear protection - it just provides protection for a longer time if the oil is being changed infrequently (which is not desirable).

Alfa Romeo recommended changing the gearbox oil at intervals of 18,000 km. Both the fill plug on the right side of the box and the drain plug at the bottom require a 19 mm socket. Alfa initially recommended the use of a monograde SAE 30 engine oil such as Shell Rotella T30. In December 1972 approval was given to Shell Rotella SX30. The viscosity of these oils is 10.9 cSt at 100 deg C, which corresponds to ISO viscosity grade 100, on the border between gear oil viscosity 80W and 85W. Shell Rotella oils are no longer sold in some countries and Shell Aseol (Switzerland) recommend the use of Shell Rimula X30 as a substitute. For proper synchromesh operation, it is probably unwise to use synthetic oils or any kind of friction-reducing additive in the gearbox. However, Philip Hehir uses Redline Blue Schockproof oil in the gearbox of his racing Montreal. The gearbox drain plug is fitted with a magnet which should be cleaned with each oil change.

Alfa Romeo also recommended changing the differential oil at 18,000 km intervals, although this is less important than for the gearbox. A limited slip differential axle oil such as Shell Spirax A 90LS should be used. The fill plug takes a 12 mm or 14 mm hex key while the drain plug requires a 22 mm socket wrench. The drain plug is fitted with a magnet which should be cleaned with each oil change.

The Spica pumping elements are lubricated by fuel and premature wear has been attributed to the fuel formulations that were made at the beginning of the unleaded era. While there is no confirmed evidence of its utility, some owners add a little Marvel Mystery Oil to the fuel with the objective of adding some lubrication. While this should not be necessary with modern fuel formulations, it should do no harm either. MMO consists of about 75% naphtha and 25% white spirit (Stoddard solvent), with less than 1% benzene and a trace of wintergreen oil for fragrance.

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Oil filters

Suitable main engine oil filters for the Montreal are quite readily available. The same disposable cartridge type was fitted to many 4-cylinder 105-series 1300, 1600 and 2000 cars, with the exception of the 1300 Giulia TI, Giulia Super, GT Junior and Spider Junior, the 1600 Giulia Super and the 1750 models, which had a canister with renewable element. Compatible Alfa Romeo oil filter types include the 96 mm diam 60507080 (116.44.06.030.0), 60522155 (116.46.45.050.00) and 109 mm diam 60521128 (116.00.06.030.99), while the Crossland 484, K&N HP-2004 and FRAM PH2941 can also be used. US owners have reported satisfactory results with FRAM HP1 and PH8A filters, the AC Delco PF-20, the K&N HP-1002, and Purolator models L20081, L20017 and L20020. FRAM PH16, TG16 and XG16 filters can also be used. 96 mm diam filters can be replaced from the top, whereas larger filters must be replaced from below the car after lowering the anti-roll bar.

When first turning over a rebuilt engine it can be prudent to attach an oil pressure gauge to the filter housing and crank it without spark plugs until pressure is registered.

In spite of the protection provided by the oil filter, Mal Nicholson has reported finding an oil pressure release valve blocked by debris. The debris, consisting of small flakes of rubber which may have been shed by the interior walls of the flexible oil hoses, prevented the valve opening and resulted in very high oil pressure. Contamination of the oil circuit can also arise from particles shed by the timing chain guides, which tend to disintegrate with age. Philip Hehir has reported a similar blockage of the pressure relief valve by metallic debris.

Replacement oil hoses for the Montreal (105.64.31.901.01/902.00), which have DIN standard size LX18 fittings, can be fabricated by some local specialist hydraulic shops. Steve Merrihew has reported that a 45-degree fitting cannot be used as a replacement for the original 30-degree fitting at the oil reservoir. Some hydraulic shops which do not stock the fittings can transfer the original ones to new hoses. Jack Rugh had this done by Lonsdale and Holtzman in Baltimore for USD 55. New oil hoses can be supplied by René Richner.

The Spica injection pump lubricating circuit has an additional oil filter which is integrated with the front support of the pump. Alfa Romeo specified replacement of this filter at 42,000 km intervals. Original Tecnocar OP50 replacement oil filter elements (105.64.04.082.00, GR Code 60715683) are difficult to procure but satisfactory refab filters have been produced. The overall length of the filter (including its sealing ring) should be about 48 - 48.5mm. Some longer repro filters have been found. The securing plug requires a 32 mm socket wrench. When replacing the filter, lightly grease the end of the spring to ensure that the element is not twisted when the plug is tightened. Note that the filters are not the same as for 4 cylinder Spica pumps.

A check valve above the Spica filter prevents oil draining back from the pump. A stuck valve or blocked filter can cause damage to the main shaft of the pump. The control section of the pump is not included directly in the pressure lubrication circuit and after replacing the filter, some engine oil should be added to it through the TA hole. To completely refresh the oil in the control section, it may be sucked out through the BC hole with a pvc tube attached to a syringe. The total capacity of the control section is about 250 ml but any excess drains back to the engine.

The strainers in the oil reservoir and at the entrance to the intake duct in the sump do not require routine maintenance. (They have a wide mesh intended to protect the engine from foreign objects). The 22 mm hex socket of the oil reservoir strainer can be unscrewed with a normal 18 mm box spanner.

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Oil separator

The Montreal engine draws blow-by gases and oil vapour from the crankcase and oil reservoir into the oil separator, where the oil is separated by centrifugal action and returned to the main lubrication circuit. When the throttles are open, the gases are drawn into the intake manifolds via the air cleaner for combustion. When the engine is idling, the gases enter the idling airstream via the equaliser block(s). Different versions of the separator were fitted to engines having a single rear equaliser block and those having twin side blocks.

The oil separator requires little maintenance. From time to time it should be checked that the internal passages are clean and free from corrosion and that the connecting hoses are unobstructed. Access to the far side M6 fixing bolt is facilitated by removing the Spica drive belt cover. The length of this bolt is somewhat critical. To avoid an oil leak, ensure that it does not bottom before the gasket has been compressed.

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Oil sump

With the stock suspension, the ground clearance below the oil sump is about 14.5cm. Cracks can be repaired by specialist welders, such as Schweisstechnik in Germany, or by cold weld products.

To avoid stripping the threads, the sump drain plug should not be overtightened. David Dunkling has effected a successful repair by retapping the hole for a 3/8 BSPT (British Standard Pipe Taper) 14tpi pressure plug. He avoided removing the sump by pouring oil into the reservoir to wash out the swarf during the repair.

A reproduction oil sump for the Montreal has been produced in Germany by Achim Agne, who created a CNC program by measuring the original sump completely. The sump is made from AlMg4.5Mn aluminium alloy, and the surface is anodised black. Achim could produce a small series of them if required.

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Cylinder heads

The original height of the Montreal cylinder heads (measured between the surfaces mating with the cylinder head and cam cover gaskets) is 120.5 +0 -0.1 mm and the maximum acceptable re-grinding depth for flattening is 0.2 mm. If the maximum tolerance is reached, the peripheries of the combustion chambers should be re-chamfered to avoid possible piston interference with the cylinder head at TDC. Italian Montreal owner Michele Judica reports having successfully reduced the height to 119.9 mm without having to modify the pockets in the pistons. Using a professional lab tool, Arnoud Duiven has obtained combustion chamber volume measurements of 34.0, 34.6 and 35.0 cc on a cylinder head of standard height (with spark plugs and valves in place). The pistons have a dome height of 3 mm above the top of the liners and occupy a volume of 5 cc.

While it is easier to remove the cylinder heads with the engine out of the car, this is also possible in situ. The engine should be jacked up a little after disconnecting the front engine mounts. Reproduction engine mounts can supplied by Classic Alfa and Achim Agne. Some of the exhaust header nuts are quite difficult to access. Dirk Van Rompaey made a right-angle 13mm wrench to access the forward nut of cylinder 4.

Alfa Romeo emphasized that correct cylinder head tightening procedures are very important for the Montreal's high performance engine. The three procedures detailed in the Owner Manuals are those which were carried out on the factory assembly line in series production. They should be repeated after removal of the cylinder heads (when the cylinder head gaskets must also be replaced) but the sequence as described is incomplete and additional operations are necessary at later times as indicated here. (Note that the final operation is procedure B, not procedure C)

700-1200 km after the above work, procedure C should be carried out followed by procedure B. Repeat this operation (procedure C followed by procedure B) 5000-6000 km after the initial work. By the way, to preserve the accuracy of a toggle-action torque wrench it is good practice to set the dial near the lower part of the torque range while it is in storage. Never apply additional force to such a wrench after the mechanism has toggled.

See the following section concerning torquing with "Victory" brand Montreal cylinder head gaskets.

While the Montreal cylinder head studs have the same M12 x 1.5 mm thread as those of 1750 and 2000 cars, the head nuts are 17 mm instead of 19 mm because of the smaller wells. Alfa Romeo special tool A.5.0170 allows the Montreal head nuts to be accessed easily. The 11 cm long special tool No. 1061 made by Stahlwille of Wuppertal, Germany, is also suitable. The Hazet Type 3432 appears to be identical, but unfortunately both of these tools are now out of production. Dirk Nehme has successfully fabricated an equivalent tool from a 17 mm ring spanner. To fit the least accessible nuts the external diameter of the ring spanner should be ground down to about 25.5 mm. This home-made tool looks just like the original Alfa Romeo one. Dirk Van Rompaey made a suitable tool by welding together part of a 17mm ring spanner, a 17mm bolt and a short hexagonal bar.

If the head has been skimmed, or a stud replaced, check that the studs do not bottom in the head nuts (either directly or because of a hydraulic lock) before the nuts are fully tightened.

Cylinder head cracks are not uncommon, particularly in the vicinity of the sparkplug holes. They can be detected by a pressure test, and can usually be repaired by welding.

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Gaskets

Montreal cylinder head gaskets with silicone beading and Interface Solutions metal-perforated non-asbestos composite gasket material have been manufactured in Pathum Thani, Thailand, by Gaskets-To-Go. In 2011 John Baker produced a new batch of these gaskets using the same material, but which are silicone coated on the entire surface on both sides. The final sets from this batch are available at a special discounted price of USD 89.95 per pair plus USD 19.95 for registered airmail shipping.

A Montreal engine gasket set (Ref. 305930), initially developed under the "Victory" brand name by the Italian manufacturer Sivocci Est, can now be supplied by Athena Spa, Via delle Albere 13, I-36040 Alonte (Vicenza), Italy. This comprehensive set includes almost all the gaskets for the engine and exhaust system. Some of the sets had some unnecessary and some missing gaskets. The Sivocci Reference Nos. for the missing gaskets are 3310 (the distributor drive flange/blanking plate gasket 105.64.05.102.00) and 3323 (the upper timing chest gasket 105.55.01.305.01).

The cylinder head gaskets in the kit can also be purchased separately (Right head gasket, Ref. 330929; Left head gasket, Ref. 330930), but they are not of the highest quality. For owners who wish to fit superior quality cylinder head gaskets from another manufacturer, the engine gasket set less the cylinder head gaskets (Ref. 300930) can also be supplied. Seals are not included in the sets. Montreal owners can order any of the gasket sets directly from Athena from Luisa Tregnago or Daniela Zanellato.

Some of the cylinder head gaskets have been manufactured without the copper sealing ring for the hole by which the pressurized oil reaches the heads. Athena will replace such defective gaskets free of charge.

Sivocci did not recommend the use of sealant with their Montreal cylinder head gaskets, which are already treated with a material that reacts to the heat of the engine. Avoid contamination of the gaskets or mating surfaces with oil and do not handle the gasket surfaces with bare fingers. Sivocci also indicated that the cylinder head nuts can be torqued 15-20% more than was prescribed by Alfa Romeo (i.e., to 9.3 - 9.8 mkg). Racing Montreal owner Philip Hehir torques to 11.1 mkg following a gasket failure when using lower torque. At high torques there is a risk of pulling a stud from the block.

The OEM cylinder head gaskets, which were of higher quality than the "Victory" ones, were manufactured in Germany by Elring (Part Nos. 512.117 for the right side and 512.125 for the left side), but these are no longer available from the manufacturer. In early 2006, German Montreal fans Dirk and Hannelore Nehme arranged for the refabrication by Elring of a new batch of 80 gaskets. This version (Part Nos. 560130-02 for the right side and 560129-01 for the left side) uses silk-screened silicone beads instead of copper rings for sealing. According to Elring these gaskets can be stored for at least 15 years in suitable conditions.

Alberto Furegon has successfully used Montreal cylinder head gaskets supplied by Sangalli Guarnizioni in Italy.

Montreal cylinder head gaskets of good quality can also be supplied by Dichtungen Schwarz in Germany. They can supply 82 mm, 83 mm, 85 mm or 87 mm diameter versions. To special order they can also manufacture small quantities of other gaskets from either a sample or a drawing.

Mark Wallis reports that the contents of the Montreal engine gasket set sold by Spesso Gaskets srl of Turin under Part No. 111110 appear to be the same as the Victory Brand set offered at much lower cost under Ref. 305930.

Coolant leakage into a combustion chamber often results in a plume of white steam from the exhaust at engine startup. The cylinder can be identified by examination of the spark plugs, since that from the affected cylinder will be cleaner than the others. A minor gasket leak may cause a continuous stream of bubbles in the coolant reservoir when the engine is running. However, bubbles can also be caused by air in the coolant circuit if a malfunctioning filler cap valve prevents coolant returning from the reservoir to the engine after it has stopped.

Special tool A.2.0193 can be used to help remove the cylinder heads from the block, but this can still be a difficult task if significant corrosion has occurred. Use penetrating oil liberally on the studs and ensure that the heads remain parallel to the block as they are raised. In difficult cases, an effective technique is to slacken the head nuts, remove the plugs and camshafts and stuff thick soft rope down the cylinders with pistons at BDC on their way to TDC (on the compression and exhaust strokes). Then rotate the crankshaft (by hand, or by pushing the car in gear, or even by blipping the starter if it is connected) to break the head free.

Alberto Furegon can supply repro gaskets for the joint between the Spica pump and the engine for EUR 3 each plus postage.

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Compression testing

The unmodified Montreal engine has a compression ratio of 9.0:1. Tests with a compression gauge can be used to diagnose a number of engine problems caused by a defective head gasket, burned valves or seats, sticking valves, or worn rings or cylinders.

To perform a compression test the engine should be run until working temperature is reached. Before starting, the battery should be well charged to allow consistent cranking throughout the test. All the spark plugs should be removed, the throttle blocked open and the fuel pumps and ignition units disabled by removing the two "Accensione, Pompa carburante" fuses. To reduce the injection of fuel, the CSS should be disabled and the Spica link rod disconnected.

The maximum compression figures for each of the eight cylinders should be recorded and compared. The actual values, typically 10 - 14 kg/cm2 (142 - 199 psi), depend on many factors such as engine temperature, cam timing and cranking speed and are of less importance than the difference between cylinders. The readings should be within 10-15% of each other.

Low compression on two adjacent cylinders may indicate a blown head gasket between them. A sticking valve could cause compression to be low for the first few turns before increasing to normal. If one cylinder has low compression, a wet test should be run by adding a little engine oil to it. If this raises the compression, worn piston rings or cylinders are indicated. If the oil has little effect, the head gasket or valves may be leaking.

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Pistons

The Montreal engine uses 3-ring aluminium pistons with valve recesses in the crowns. During 1971 the pistons fitted to early engines were replaced by reinforced models (105.55.02.030.00 for pistons with Borgo rings, 105.55.02.030.01 for pistons with Goetze rings). The reinforced pistons carry the identification number 2926, which distinguishes them from the early models (2773). Classic Alfa can supply a number of NOS sets of these pistons and rings.

Alfa Romeo recommended that the later models should be fitted if any pistons require replacement. As there is a difference of weight between the early models and the later ones, the whole set of pistons must be replaced together to avoid balance problems. Piston clearance is 0.030 - 0.049 mm, from 10 mm below the top to 20 mm above the bottom of the liner.

The Montreal piston rings are the same as those used in the 1750 engine, the 1200 and 1300 engines of the Alfasud and the 1300 of the Alfa 33.

Connecting rod bearings (and main bearing shells) for the Montreal engine can be supplied by Afra and Sergio Allais in Italy. Suitable new pistons can be supplied by JE and CPS.

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Liners

The 80 mm bore wet cylinder liners (105.55.01.101.01) in the aluminium block of the Montreal engine have a 4 mm thick wall in the central part of the barrel. (Higher resolution drawing - 600 KBytes). They are machined from cast iron with Brinell hardness number 220 - 270 and were classed in 3 tolerance ranges as follows:

The tolerance class is stamped on the top of liners which were supplied by Wizemann and marked on the outside lower wall of those from Borgo.

To avoid unseating a cylinder liner and breaking its delicate oil seal, ensure that the main crankshaft is not moved while a cylinder head is off the block. When the crankshaft has to be rotated, as to change pistons and connecting rods, sleeves and washers on the cylinder head studs can be used to retain the liners instead of Special tool A.2.0191. The acceptable projection of the liners above the block is 0 to 0.06 mm.

To extract a liner which is stuck in the block, run a bead of weld around the inside of it about a third of the way down from the top of the fitted portion. The liner will usually become free when the weld cools and shrinks.

The liner O-rings (105.41.01.102.00) are the same as used in 105-series 1750 engines. They can be supplied by G. Häckner (P/N 011021) for about EUR 2 each.

When rebuilding his Montreal engine, Gene Brown found that it was more economical to bore out the worn liners and fit new JE pistons than to fit original piston/liner pairs. Alberto Furegon fitted pistons from CPS in Italy.

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Camshafts

The Montreal valve timing was not changed when the emission-control "S" engines were introduced. (Only the 3D cam in the Spica injector control unit, the distributor and the ignition timing were changed).

Cold engine inlet valve clearance is 0.475 - 0.500 mm; exhaust valve clearance 0.525 - 0.550 mm. Adjustment is by valve stem shims.

The basic timing is Intake: 36 deg 50 min - 60 deg 50 min, Exhaust: 54 deg 10 min - 30 deg 10 min. (Valve overlap 67 deg).

To achieve this the valve opening lifts should be 0.20 mm (inlet) and 0.15 mm (exhaust) at the following angles. The tolerance is ±1.5 deg.

Unlike those in other Alfa Romeo 105/115 series engines, the valve timing reference marks on both intake and exhaust front camshaft caps on Montreal engines should be at 0 deg. The 1P mark on the flywheel is used for the inlet and exhaust cams of the right cylinder head and the 5P mark for those of the left head. Jules Becker reports that in his engine the left head camshaft cap timing marks are at +45 deg, so that the 1P mark is used for both heads. When the camshafts are aligned correctly, refit the small locating bolts in the pairs of holes on the camshaft vernier plates and cam sprockets that are most nearly in alignment. (The holes allow the angle to be adjusted in increments of 1.5 deg)

Colombo & Bariani in Milan (Via Lazzati 4, Tel +39 2341206, Fax +39 233103388) can make new Montreal camshafts to the original specifications (or with requested alterations) but with a superior surface hardening treatment.

In the US, Montreal camshafts can be reground by D. Elgin Cams but service can be slow.

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Cam covers

At origin the Montreal cam covers were neither painted nor polished. Some owners have finished them in black, grey with black detailing, or even red. Autodelta often used a striking blue. If powder coat is used for painting the cam covers a low-temperature version should be chosen to avoid warping of the castings during curing.

If the cam covers have been exposed to any acidic solvent it is likely to have eaten some way into the metal. If the corrosion is not too deep, bead-blasting should be able to clean the surface. Ensure that the blasting media have not been contaminated by cleaning previous oily parts and that the machined edges of the covers are fully protected. As the alloy contains magnesium it will re-oxidise quite rapidly after cleaning if no surface treatment is applied.

Special tool A.5.0180 allows the cam cover nuts to be tightened conveniently with a 32 mm socket wrench. The Montreal parts catalogue shows the use of fibre washers (1306.12.08) in all 12 positions. In fact, aluminium washers (105.02.01.582.00) were fitted in the 4 rearmost positions to ensure electrical continuity between the cam covers and the cylinder heads.

When raising the engine, risk of damage to the cam covers can be avoided by employing a lifting hoist spread bar.

In late 1972 Alfa Romeo issued a warning that when replacing the Montreal cam covers great care should be taken to centre them exactly on the cylinder heads.

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Chain tensioners

The spring-loaded timing chain tensioners are locked in place by set screws that take a 14 mm wrench. The left side set screw is located about the middle of the Spica, while the right side one is just above the alternator.

Before starting the adjustment procedure, drive the car to thoroughly heat the engine. To allow the tensioners to tighten the chains, slacken the tensioner set screws for a short time while the engine is running steadily at 1300-1500 rpm. Then tighten the set screws to lock them in place. While doing this operation keep clear of the fan, which might start running at any moment without warning. Be sure to slacken the set screws only while the engine is running at constant speed. On no account rev the engine during this operation, and don't start the engine with the set screws already slackened!

To allow the tensioner to move freely to set the chain tension, each set screw should be slackened at least one full turn so that the locking plate is not exerting any pressure on the shaft. But do not slacken the set screw so much that the locking plate could move out of position! (If the hole in the locking plate is not lined up with the tip of the set screw the tensioner may not be well secured when the screw is tightened).

If you feel nervous about this procedure, it is alternatively possible to turn over the engine by hand. The engine should still be hot before starting. Jack up the right rear wheel, slacken the tensioner set screws, and turn the wheel clockwise for a few revolutions while in top gear before retightening them.

Note that decreased cam timing chain tension may be an indication of a failing water pump bearing. There should be very little play when you press down on the chains between the cam sprockets.

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Chain guides

If the chain tensions have been set correctly, any rattling or scraping noise coming from the timing chest of the engine should be treated with suspicion. The synthetic rubber facings that are bonded to the timing chain guide castings tend to deteriorate with time and can eventually disintegrate. If this happens the chain will begin to erode the casting itself, contaminating the engine with metallic debris. A guide may even be caught in the chain and one of its mounting studs sheared off.

Complete reproduction chain guides similar to the original parts can be supplied by AFRA. New chain guides faced with PTFE can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti. It is also possible to attach PTFE facings to simplified shoes machined from aluminium alloy. If the original chain guide shoes are undamaged, replacement synthetic rubber facings can be bonded to them. Robert Thompson can supply PTFE facings attached to original shoes on an exchange basis for GBP 160 per pair, plus shipping.

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Chains

Unlike the chain guides, the Montreal engine chains are very reliable and rarely give problems unless the sprocket teeth have become worn. The timing chains have a BSI 3DR roller chain pattern and, although they have the same 3/8" pitch, ANSI #35 chains have other dimensional differences and should not be used. Replacement chain sets can be supplied by AFRA and G. Häckner in Europe and by Black Bart in the US.

Since the Montreal engine cam chains are somewhat shorter than that of the 4-cyl 2000 engine, they can alternatively be cut from the long chains sold for that motor. Note that the left and right Montreal cam chains are about 3.8 cm different in length. Another 2000 cam chain has to be cut to make the lower primary chain for the Montreal, as it is slightly longer than the lower chain for the 4-cyl engine.

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Brake callipers

The repair and maintenance instructions for ATE disk brakes published in July 1966 (revised May 1969) for Giulia models (DIASS 1202 for the English version, 1201 for the French version, 1173 for the Italian version) are generally applicable to the Montreal except that the front pad wear limit is 8 mm instead of 7 mm. Frendo FD 501 brake pads (105.64.22.052.01/25 front, 105.64.26.003.01/25 rear) were fitted to the Montreal initially, superseded in 1974 by FD 1004 HG pads (105.64.22.052.02/25 front, 105.64.26.003.02/25 rear). The later pads have white/yellow/white/yellow colour marks.

While the large ventilated disc brakes can take a lot of punishment without fading, they do require a relatively high pedal pressure in spite of the vacuum servo. Higher bite may be obtained by the use of pads having a high coefficient of friction, such as Ferodo DS3000, but it should be noted that these are not E marked or approved for road use. Ferodo DS2000 pads are approved for road use but have a coefficient of friction 30% lower. Agusti Vilella has reported good results with NECTO FD51A pads.

The braking efficiency can be significantly improved by replacing the front callipers with the 4-piston models which were made by ATE for some other vehicles. The callipers fitted to the Alfa 6 and to certain early BMW E23 7-series cars have the same bolt spacing. It should be noted that any brake modifications raise safety and vehicle homologation issues and are undertaken entirely at the owner's responsibility.

The Alfa 6 callipers (ATE Nos. 13.4401-0005.2 left, 13.4401-0006.2 right) are well centred but since they are a little wider they must be mounted with longer bolts than the originals. The bolts must have precision shanks and very high shear strength. Brake pads of maximum thickness 15 mm should be used (e.g., asbestos-free Derendinger SB 33.11-60). Since the Alfa 6 callipers have twin hydraulic inputs, T-pieces (e.g., Derendinger 3.3513-0200.1) must be fitted in the brake lines and adequately secured.

These pictures were taken by Giorgio Penatti during the fitting of Alfa 6 callipers to his Montreal:

The T-pieces and hydraulic brake lines were provided by an Italian manufacturer which supplies parts to Fiat. Giorgio can arrange for the supply of these parts to other Montreal owners.

The compatible BMW callipers have the following Part Nos.:

They were fitted to the following vehicle models:

BMW Model Dates
728 05.77 - 08.79
728i 09.79 - 08.82
730 07.77 - 08.79
732i 09.79 - 08.82
733i 03.77 - 07.82
735i 09.79 - 08.81

These callipers are no longer listed in the ATE catalogue, but new ones can still be supplied by classic BMW dealers such as Jaymic, and rebuilt ones are available from some brake specialists. Callipers rebuilt by Crown Remanufacturing can be supplied by Fruit Ridge Tools for USD 37.19 each plus shipping. (eBay store). Before placing an order via their website or eBay store, be sure to advise Fruit Ridge in advance that the callipers are for the Alfa Romeo Montreal, to ensure that the correct type is picked. Repair kits (ATE 13.0441-4018.2, BMW 3411.1158.692) are also available. One kit is required for the 4 pistons of each calliper.

Note that the ATE 13.4401-8019.2, 13.4401-8020.2 callipers fitted to some later BMW E23 7-series models are not suitable for the Montreal as they are designed for 25 mm instead of 22 mm brake discs. (Since these callipers are wider they do not clear the wheels).

Suitable asbestos-free pads for the callipers are ICER 180304 or Siffert 2272 (Ferrari 365, 1969-73 etc) with ATE M4-13 (BMW 3411.1150.554) retaining clips. The universal profile code for the pads is WVA 20437.

As the BMW callipers are about 1 mm off-centre, mounting spacers are required (int. diam. 12.5 mm, ext. diam. 25 mm). But no modification of the brake lines is necessary as they have a single hydraulic input, although they have twin bleed screws. These callipers bolt right in without any modification of the splash shield.

The replacement 4-cylinder callipers add somewhat to the unsprung weight:

(Pads, clips and guide pins are included).

Brake squeal can be avoided by the application of high temperature grease such as Molyslip COPA-SLIP between pistons and pads.

In view of the small clearance between both the front and rear brake callipers and the wheels, it is not advisable to fit adhesive balance weights inside the wheels. The type of weights which clip on to the external edges of the wheel rims are to be preferred.

Alfaholics offer a front brake kit for the Montreal including slotted discs with aluminium mounting bells and 4-pot callipers. The callipers require mounting adaptors, which are included in the kit along with a full bolt pack. The kit costs GBP 795, plus taxes where applicable.

High Performance Restorations of Nesscliffe, Shrewsbury, UK, Tel. (+44) 1743 741592, fitted the Montreal of Scott Slavin with Wilwood 4-pot Dynalite forged callipers, Part No. 120-6806, supplied by Rally Design. Since these callipers have a mounting hole spacing of 5.25in (133.4mm), they require adaptors to fit the Montreal. Universal adaptors (UNID .5) are available that can be machined to the required shape and drilled to suit the 3.5in (88.9mm) spacing of the Montreal.

The Montreal rear brake callipers are similar to those fitted to 1750 and 2000 Berlina, GTV and Spider Veloce models, except that they have an additional 10.5 mm spacer to accommodate the wider vented brake discs. When replacing the callipers, orient the pistons at an angle of about 20 deg to the reference surface of the callipers, with the higher end of the arc towards the front of the car. The bleed screws have 7 mm diam x 1 mm pitch threads. The pad retaining kits for these callipers (ATE 13.0460-0125.2) are BMW Part No. 3421.1150.557. The pins are the same as those for the original Montreal front callipers, but the clips for the front callipers are larger.

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Brake discs

The Montreal ventilated brake discs (rotors) are substantially wider than the solid discs of other 105-series cars and the thickness wear limits are 21 mm for the front discs and 19 mm for the rear. The maximum permissible runout is 0.22 mm.

NOS replacement front brake discs are becoming rare and now cost EUR 192 each (plus shipping and tax where applicable) from Afra. In 2007, US Montreal owner John Newman organized the production of a series of repro front brake discs by Disc Brakes Australia. For this batch order, the price was USD 65 each FOB Melbourne. Additional charges apply as follows: Heat treatment USD 8, Slotting USD 6, Heat treatment and slotting USD 15, Heat treatment, slotting and cross-drilling USD 20. Studs are not included. These discs were manufactured from Grade 220 grey cast iron to strict quality control standards. They are now DBA catalogue items with the following Part Nos:

Street series:

4000-series (heat treated):

The thickness wear limit for the DBA discs is 20 mm.

John Newman is now organising the production of a batch of reproduction Montreal rear brake discs by DBA. The prices and options will be similar to those for front brake discs and a minimum order of 100 units is required. Please indicate your interest to John as soon as possible.

Gene Brown has upgraded the front brakes of his Montreal by installing Wilwood 4-piston aluminium callipers and Coleman brake rotors with custom hats. The callipers weigh only 3.0 kg each, while the complete brake discs weigh 4.5 kg each compared with 6.4 kg for the original Montreal ones. Gene has made a detailed description of the conversion and drawings of the hat and rotor.

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Brake hydraulics

Because of the increased slave cylinder volume, brake pedal travel increases somewhat when either the Alfa 6 or BMW callipers are fitted. To minimise this, a 7/8-inch ("22 mm") bore master cylinder (605.172.01, ATE 03.2122-0142.3) should be used rather than a 13/16-inch ("20 mm") one such as ATE 03.2120-4504.3. The 7/8-inch master cylinders were fitted to Montreals at the factory instead of the 13/16-inch ones from October 1973 onwards. Repair kits for both types of master cylinder are still available (105.48.45.020.03/30, 607.144.87, ATE 03.0370-1920.2, Seinsa D1123 for 13/16-inch, 105.64.45.020.00/30, 607.161.67, ATE 03.0370-4822.2, Seinsa D1093 for 7/8-inch).

To reduce pedal travel further, Manos Protonotarios has fitted a 15/16-inch (23.81 mm) master cylinder (ATE 03.2123-6802.3 or 03.2123-7002.3) from a 1970s BMW E12 5-series car to his Montreal. The two extra ports on this cylinder require to be plugged, but the original Montreal fluid reservoir can be fitted if larger rubber washers are used.

Marius Sorteberg has fitted his Montreal with the 15/16-inch (23.81 mm) bore master cylinder from an E28 528 BMW (model up to 1985). The BMW Part No. of this ATE master cylinder is 34311153053. As it has only two ports, a T-junction has to be fitted to the forward one to feed the separate hydraulic lines for the front callipers of the Montreal. The fluid reservoir from a BMW E30 320i can be fitted, as the original one is not suitable.

The Brazilian-made Varga brake master cylinders fitted to pre-1986 VW Golfs (VW Part No. 171 611 019D or 171 611 019N) can be used as replacements for the "20 mm" version of the more expensive ATE components.

The Montreal's dual brake system has separate hydraulic circuits for the front and rear brakes. Hence a single proportioning valve suffices to reduce the hydraulic pressure to the rear brakes, to improve the braking balance and prevent premature rear wheel lockup during hard braking. The valve is located just forward of the left side centre exhaust muffler. It requires no maintenance and does not require readjustment when the front callipers are upgraded.

Dirk Nehme has fitted his Montreal with the larger ATE 03.6850-0200.4 servo unit which equipped Mercedes-Benz 230.6-280 CE (W114) (07.67 - 10.76). To accommodate the larger servo, Dirk extended the actuator of the clutch master cylinder to allow it to be mounted further forward on a new bracket. The bracket was made by carefully cutting the original one from the old brake servo, turning it through 180 degrees and bolting it to the wheel arch with suitable reinforcing.

With age, any of the three flexible hoses in the hydraulic brake piping can become partially obstructed internally. When this problem develops, the brakes may still be applied but the pistons may not retract the pads from the brake disks, resulting in excessive wear and overheating. Replacement hoses are readily available. Metal braided types such as Goodridge brakelines have superior performance and longer life. The TAR0200-3P brakehose kit, although intended for the Alfa Spider, has been certified by Goodridge for the Montreal. It can be supplied by Classic Alfa for GBP 35, plus taxes where applicable.

The brake pedal cover is the same as that fitted to all other 105-series cars and replacements are readily available at low cost.

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Handbrake

To maintain handbrake efficiency and correctly radiused brake shoes, the rotary adjusters inside the brake drums must be set before the cable length adjuster in the transmission tunnel. With a slack cable, the rotary adjusters should be used to lock the brakes and then backed off just sufficiently for the shoes to clear the drums. It can be helpful to remove the disc brake pads during this operation. The handbrake ratchet has a range of 5 clicks and the brake light switch should be adjusted to close at the 2nd click, while the brakes should be fully applied at the 3rd click. If the cylindrical cable length adjuster is out of range, withdraw the cotter and remove the clevis pin from the handbrake linkage. The clevis can then be rotated to set the cable length adjuster in the middle of its range.

The handbrake cable is routed over the rear axle housing. Some versions are fitted with metallic braid reinforcement in this area to prevent abrasion of the outer sheath. Replacement cables can be supplied by G. Häckner for about EUR 33.

In some cases, it can be difficult to separate the drums from the wheel hubs to change the brake shoes. With the wheel nuts on the studs for safety, retract the handbrake shoes completely and use a gear puller to apply moderate pressure to the brake disc while tapping the drum in a radial direction only with a rubber mallet. Do not try to separate the drum with the gear puller alone and do not strike the disc with the mallet!

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Tool kit

The tool kit supplied with the Montreal comprised only a wheel nut wrench, 19/21 mm spark plug box spanner, plain and Philips screwdrivers and a pair of pliers of mediocre quality. These items are contained in a black cloth pouch which is stored in the boot of the car. The handle of the wheel nut wrench is only 20 cm long but can be extended somewhat with the box spanner. The Part No. of the tool kit is 105.48.80.010.00, not 105.14.80.010.00 as shown in the TAV. 164 illustration.

Although some of the illustrations in the owner manuals show otherwise, the jack supplied with the Montreal (105.64.80.015.00) was of a different design from that supplied with other 105 series cars (105.00.80.015.01). The Montreal version has a large rake angle to clear the bulbous bodywork of the car and has telescopic tubes of square section, which prevents the inner tube rotating when the handle is turned with the foot off the ground. When not in use the jack is secured by a wing nut to a stud on the inside of the tail panel. The plastic gearbox cover of the jack can easily go missing. Reproduction covers can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti.

Montreals with electric windows were supplied with an emergency crank handle equipped with a helical brass gear. This accessory allows the side windows to be operated in the event of a failure in their electrical drive mechanism. 140 full turns from top to bottom! Depress the side locking spring on the crank to extract it after use.

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Special tools

Alfa Romeo produced 191 special tools which can facilitate Montreal maintenance work. 55 of these tools were unique to the Montreal and 136 were common with various other models such as the Alfetta and Giulia. 6 of the special tools for the 2000 air conditioner are also suitable for the Montreal unit and all 14 of the special tools for Montreal brake maintenance are shared with the 2000 and Giulia.

Most of the Montreal-specific tools were for the engine (14), the Spica fuel injector (9), the ZF gearbox (22) and the rear axle and differential (6). Some tools, such as dummy TAs of different lengths, are alternatives for the different versions of Spica injection pump which were fitted to the Montreal at different times. There were also a few special tools for the electrical equipment, the clutch and the propeller shaft.

Some examples of Montreal special tools include A.5.0170 for accessing the cylinder head nuts, A.5.0180 for the cam cover nuts, A.2.0169 for compressing the front springs, A.2.0193 for removing the cylinder heads and dummy TAs such as A.4.0119 (28.7 mm) for setting up the Spica injection pump.

The September 1977 edition of the Alfa Romeo Special Tools Catalog (DIASS Publication No. 2561, 6000 printed) includes sketches of tools for the Montreal and other models. A brief description of each tool is given in Italian, French, English and German. The illustrations in this 240-page catalogue can give helpful indications of how some maintenance procedures are performed. A 40-page Bodywork Supplement to the Special Tools Catalog (DIASS Publication No. 2628, 6000 printed), published in April 1979, illustrates a few additional tools suitable for the Montreal.

At various dates numeric lists of Special Tools (without illustrations) were also published in several languages (e.g., DIASS No. 1678, May 1971, 1500 printed, for an English version; DIASS No. 2161, September 1973, 1500 printed, for a later version including the Alfetta and Alfasud; DIASS No. 2450 for an Italian version, October 1976, 2000 printed, DIASS No. 2549 for an even later Italian version, published in March 1977, including the F12 commercial vehicles).

Reproductions of a few of the Alfa Romeo special tools for the Montreal can be supplied by Totally Alfa.

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Tool sets

In 1974 Alfa Romeo offered 10 different special tool sets for the Montreal alone or in combination with other models. Each of the 10 sets was available at 3 different levels - A, B and C. The special tools required for major overhaul of the Montreal Spica injection pump were not included in any of the sets.

A-level sets comprised the basic tools required by Approved Workshops for ordinary service operations, while B-level sets were intended for all Dealers who might be required to carry out work on any of the mechanical components. C-level sets were recommended for Main Dealers since they included additional tools allowing some service operations to be carried out more rapidly.

The special tool sets were made available at very affordable prices. The simplest set (The A-level one for the Montreal alone), comprised 46 tools and in 1974 was sold for ITL 126,000. The most comprehensive (The C-level one for the Montreal, Giulia, 2000, F12 Benz., Alfetta and Alfasud) comprised 455 tools and cost ITL 1,595,000.

1973 Tool Bulletin 134/3 stated (my translation) "Tool Set A for the Montreal is optional for Approved Workshops because its use is dependent on the technical capabilities of the staff of these workshops and the number of cars of this type in the area".

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Tool bulletins

To complement the Special Tools catalogue, Alfa Romeo issued a number of Tool Bulletins ("Notiziari attrezzature") illustrating the use of some of the special tools to perform prescribed operations. A few of the Tool Bulletins issued between 1971 and late 1973 were relevant to the Montreal. The bulletins were numbered progressively and published in English, French, German, Italian and Spanish. Some of the bulletins were revised 3 or 4 times during their lifetime.

Here is an example of the 2nd revision of the French version of Tool Bulletin 93, issued in February 1973 in replacement of the revision of March 1969 (prior to Montreal production). It describes the use of Special Tool A.2.0169 for removing and refitting the front suspension springs.

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Crankshaft nut

The damper (crankshaft pulley) of the Montreal engine is secured by a large castellated ring nut (105.55.02.105.01), unlike the 36 mm hex nut fitted to some 4-cylinder Alfa Romeo engines. The nut should be torqued with lubricant to 14 mkg.

Special tool A.5.0171 facilitates removal and replacement of this nut. The original Alfa Romeo tool was made by welding together a castellated ring, a protection ring, a spacer tube and an end piece. Hannes Paling has fabricated an equivalent tool of his own design from a pair of concentric steel rings welded to a suitable handle. Peter Diamantes (28 South Farview Ave., Paramus, NJ 07652, USA) can supply replacement crankshaft pulley nuts in 17-4 stainless steel for USD 60 and a reproduction of the special tool for USD 170. A reproduction of the Alfa Romeo tool can be supplied by Totally Alfa for GBP 49.50. A castellated socket can be used as an alternative tool.

In Montreals equipped with air conditioning, the supplementary pulley for the compressor drive belts is secured to the damper by 5 studs. Gene Brown has reported that in his car the combined pulleys are held by a hex crankshaft nut that fits a standard 50 mm socket. To fit within the compressor drive pulley, the nut should have a 50 mm diam round section, 12 mm high. The hex portion is 9 mm high and the thread is 35 x 1.5 mm.

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Emblems

The Montreal carries no explicit external model identification. Hannes Paling has laser-cut an attractive aluminium Montreal emblem based on the ashtray logo and he has made available the CAD file (180K) in AutoCAD DXF format. By adjusting the scale, emblems can be cut in sizes suitable for the rear of the vehicle, the engine or other locations. The cover from a spare ashtray makes an attractive desktop or mantelpiece ornament for a Montreal owner.

The V8 emblem for current production Rover cars matches the 1970's chrome style of the Montreal.

Giorgio Penatti can supply a Montreal 8C emblem which can be mounted on the rear of the car.

The front and rear Alfa Romeo badges of the Montreal should be the plastic (not enamelled) type with silver (not gold) laurel leaves, with or without "MILANO" according to the date of manufacture of the vehicle. The 55 mm dia model by BOMISA of Milan is a rather neater fit than the 54 mm versions such as Bella 11.131.000 or G.E.C.A.R. 18.141.000. Be sure to procure the type with the securing lugs on a horizontal rather than a vertical axis. Rubber cement offers some additional hindrance to badge removal by souvenir hunters, while yielding to determined efforts before bodywork damage is caused. Matthew Franklin has written a concise history of the badge.

A variety of combinations of Bertone badges and emblems were fitted to the front wings of Montreals at different production times. The very earliest cars had the skeleton "b" logo with black and chrome "Bertone" emblem. These are still made by Franco Ragni and are readily available, as is the red and blue/white chequered "Torino" emblem fitted to later cars. When replacing one of a pair note that there are minor variations of detail among different versions of the same emblem (solid moulding with bevelled corners, moulded frame with rounded corners and transparent plastic insert, etc). As mail order suppliers do not always distinguish between the variants it is wise to purchase emblems at classic car spare parts sales where they can be inspected and matched. The plastic insert type retaining glue tends to become brittle with age, allowing the insert to drop out. To avoid this, prise out the insert before it becomes lost and reglue it with a modern adhesive.

Skeleton "b" emblems similar to those fitted to the Montreal wings are available from Opel/Vauxhall dealers. Massimo Busuoli is planning to make a reproduction of the smaller version of the "b" emblem which was fitted to the blanking plates covering the radio escutcheon.

On the other hand, replacements for the solid shield "b" logo fitted to some Montreals can be difficult to find. Ragni have indicated that they did not make these and the manufacturer has not been identified. These badges have been sold in Alfa Romeo spares bags labelled with the same Part No. (105.64.61.196.00/01) as that indicated in both revisions of the Montreal Parts Catalogue for the skeleton logo. They also have the same Bertone No. (5.90.032) on the back.

The separate "Alfa" and "Romeo" emblems on the rear of the Montreal are available from Franco Ragni (AR/90), International Auto Parts (#02007, USD 99.50) and Black Bart's emblems (AR/90, USD 150 list).

Other combinations of emblems were fitted to the last Montreals to be manufactured.

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Heart

The distinctive heart-shaped radiator grille of the Montreal is die-cast in a good quality of magnesium zinc aluminium alloy (mazak) which proves quite corrosion resistant. But this material is relatively brittle and easily fractured by a minor frontal shock. As the alloy melts without warning at about 385 deg C, considerable skill is required to make a welding repair. With the appropriate flux Carr's solder can be used, but it is only half the strength of tin solder. Tony Pappas had the broken heart of his Montreal repaired by a specialist welder before polishing and replating.

A heart that is in good condition apart from the plating can be re-chromed. After removing the original coating, the metal should be copper plated and polished before applying the nickel and the chrome. Small surface imperfections can be covered by grinding down the area, or by plating with several layers of copper, polishing after each application. After the first copper plating, larger pits can be filled with low-temperature soft solder before polishing and applying further layers of copper.

A number of reproduction Montreal hearts have been produced at different times, but these did not all fit as well as the original. A run of 20 aluminium alloy hearts was produced in Lucerne. These are very solid, accurately made castings, that are highly polished instead of being plated. They were supplied by Müller Service.

Somewhat less expensive chromed reproduction hearts are available from other suppliers such as Ricambi-Automobilia and AR Classic Parts Service. They are also nicely made although they have visible welds between the horizontal and vertical elements. Another reproduction heart in chromed stainless steel can be supplied by Spider-Service E. Rizzo.

Cheaper reproduction Montreal hearts (Ref. 590314, EUR 353) can be supplied by G. Häckner.

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External trim

Much of the Montreal's external decorative trim is made of stainless steel and less subject to corrosion than to damage or loss. Ensure that the securing self-tapping screws on items like the headlamp shelter mouldings are well tightened. In early cars the side trim mouldings were secured only by plastic stud retainers. In later cars additional security was provided by T-bolts at a few locations where access to the inside surface of the body shell is possible.

The mouldings may have been made by Cane Profilati Spa of Crusinallo (a suburb of Omegna, VB), but this company closed many years ago. Reproduction polished aluminium mouldings can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti. These include the small banana-shaped trim pieces at either extremity of the front bumper, which are each secured to the body by two self-tapping screws and often become lost.

Some early production Montreals were fitted with a pair of decorative trim strips (105.64.59.259.00/02 right, 105.64.59.260.00/01 left) flanking the location for a small format rear registration plate. These were abandoned around the end of 1971 but were maintained in the 1973 revision of the Parts Catalogue to allow spares to be ordered. Some very early preproduction cars were fitted with a single decorative strip instead of a pair of shorter ones.

Giorgio Penatti can supply reproduction mounting holders and frames for the small format rear registration plate.

Clips for securing the Montreal windscreen (105.64.59.160.00/03) can be supplied by G. Häckner (P/N 591603) and Stalder & Moser (P/N 163 001 0). Berge Bergesen has found that Nissan 72825-U7400 clips are easily modified to secure the bright trim around the Montreal windscreen. The original welded studs which hold the clips can be replaced by Opel GM 164361 parts which can be secured by a pop riveter.

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Internal trim

Several original replacement internal trim parts for the Montreal are no longer available. The following reproduction parts can be supplied by Giorgio Penatti:

The trim strip between the window catches at the rear of the luggage compartment often deteriorates with time. Reproduction strips can be supplied by René Richner and Victor Hugo Trein.

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Sound insulation

Bertone applied thick sound-insulating material to the inside surfaces of several of the Montreal body panels and the floor pans. During renovation the material should be removed to check for rust, particularly in the area below the C-pillar ventilation slats. This tedious work can be facilitated by the use of an electric chisel with a 5 cm blade. Owing to its age, the material is hard and does not stick to tools. It can be replaced by modern Dynamat or Teroson products.

If the coachwork has been stripped, the sound-insulating material can alternatively be removed by dry ice blasting. In this process, pellets of solid carbon dioxide at about -79 deg C are propelled against the surface by compressed air. The combination of thermal shock and kinetic energy breaks the bonding and the material is removed from the metal by the airstream. This technique can also be used for cleaning the underside of the body in the case of a partial renovation with some of the major components still in place.

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Air conditioner

Montreals that were fitted with an optional Borletti air conditioner have different climate control panels, and the blower fan has three speeds instead of two. Alfa suggested that to test the air conditioner the system should be run for about 10 minutes to allow all parts to reach operating temperature. The temperature of the air discharged by the evaporator outlets should then be about half the ambient temperature. However, this should only be considered a rough guide because the test does not take any account of the relative humidity of the ambient air. The latent heat transfer for water condensation on the evaporator would be expected to have a major influence on the capacity available for sensible cooling.

The combined heat and air conditioning system can be used to accelerate demisting provided that such blending is only used for a few minutes at a time. The blower fan is only used for recirculating cabin air and the lower control lever should not be pushed fully to the EST (outside air) position when the fan is operating. Note that the engine idle speed of a Montreal fitted with an air conditioner should be set with the compressor in operation.

Montreals equipped with the air conditioner have an additional roller bearing (105.55.02.154.00) for the crankshaft extension which drives the damper (alternator pulley) to which the compressor pulley is secured. To provide clearance for the compressor drive belts, the 105.55.07.304.00 pump tee was replaced by a modified design (105.64.07.304.00) having a flat at the front. The water pump body was also modified, possibly to receive the unequal length mounting studs of the new pump tee, which has a different flange thickness.

The original compressor, although labelled 'Made in Italy', appears to be a single-cylinder Tecumseh HG500 model (Tecumseh mini, possibly manufactured by Blissfield) fitted with a Baruffaldi 154 mm electromagnetic clutch. This cast iron compressor weighs about 10 kg. To correct the ride height, front spring spacers of 7 mm greater thickness were used in Montreals fitted with air conditioners. The HG500 is no longer manufactured but gasket sets are available from CyrSa. Classic Auto Air in Tampa, Florida, rebuilt the compressor of Delmas Greene for about USD 600. Mark Wallis reports that a near equivalent is a CCI/York Super-Compact ("Mini") Model SC206, a twin cylinder aluminium unit which is 2 kg lighter. The side plates require redrilling to fit it.

The original refrigerant was R12, which is now becoming expensive in some countries as it is only available by recuperation. When measured by the pressure gauges on a filling rig, the suction pressure should be in the range 0.8 - 2.5 kg/cm2 and the delivery pressure in the range 10 - 20 kg/cm2. For R12, 15 kg/cm2 saturation pressure corresponds to a temperature of 61 deg C at the output from the condenser. Note that the discharge pressure if R134a refrigerant is used may be 10-15% higher. Modern refrigerants like R134a may require seal changes and are somewhat less efficient. R134a seal kits are available for Tecumseh and York compressors. Ronald Johnston offers a replacement refrigerant which is claimed to cool better than R134a and does not require component changes.

The 1975 Montreal of Nash Bapasola is equipped with a relatively lightweight Harrison 365 rotary compressor. If replacing with R134a, Nash recommends charging to about 80% of recommended R12 capacity and using about 3 fl.oz. (90 cc) of Ester oil. Victor Hugo Trein has equipped his Montreal with a Nippon denso 10P08 compressor by making a new pulley for it and adapting the original support.

The 1972 Montreal of Gene Brown was fitted with an RD12 Sanden SD-505 compressor. The R134a equivalent of this model is the SD-5H09. Owing to their greater length, mechanical modifications are required to install even the smallest Sanden compressors in the Montreal. In the Montreal of Keith Jolly, the problem of pulley alignment has been solved by fitting a single V-belt, using the rear sheave of the Sanden compressor pulley and the front sheave of the crankshaft one. Sanden International have published a guide to the procedure for converting from R12 to R134a. When using R134a with compressors that were initially designed for R12, they recommend charging to about 95% (by weight) of the R12 capacity and replacing the mineral oil by PAG oil rather than Ester oil.

The HG500 compressor has an oil capacity of about 8 fl.oz. (240 cc). The oil does not require to be changed regularly but the level should be topped up whenever the system is discharged. The oil must be completely changed when converting from R12 to R134a. Double end-capped PAG oil will blend with any mineral oil remaining in the system.

The receiver-drier should be replaced any time that the air conditioning circuit has been opened for service. Bob Bartel reports that the drier fitted to his wife's 1972 Montreal is AC Delco Part No. 12322478, which was used in many VW cars. The Montreal of Mark Wallis has a Parker Hannifin PAR 3 model. This appears to be a "universal" type equivalent to the Frigette 207-101.1 offered by Airmec. As XH5 desiccant is not compatible with R134a, the drier should be replaced by one containing XH7 or XH9 when changing to that refrigerant. After the air conditioning system has been discharged it should be vacuum evacuated for at least an hour to remove air and moisture before recharging.

Montreals fitted with air conditioners have a different escutcheon plate from that fitted to other cars (see Heater section), on which a single double-headed horizontal arrow indicates the direction of movement of the upper control lever, not the direction of the airflow.

A green and white "Aria Condizionata" sticker was applied inside the rear window of Montreals so equipped. Reproduction stickers are available.

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Chianti clip

Owners of Montreals without the optional air conditioner have discovered that the unused mounting bracket provided for the freon cleaner makes a handy half-bottle holder. Since the engine compartment is no place to be storing fine Italian wine it may be best to use the bottle for lubricant for the motor rather than for the passengers.

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Spoiler

During the testing of early Montreals, Alfa Romeo reported that they were encountering problems with a tendency for the front end of the car to lift at high speeds, which could only be corrected by increasing the static ride height of the rear. After the first 100 vehicles, a front spoiler (105.64.54.002.00, GR Code 60716291) was fitted to all the production vehicles, although in some countries it was priced as an additional accessory (CHF 150 in Switzerland). Most of the early cars were later retrofitted with spoilers through Alfa Romeo's after-sales service network and unused spare spoilers in original wrapping are occasionally found today. In addition to improving the front end adherence of the car at high speed, the spoiler improved the cooling airflow around the rear differential housing.

A reproduction front spoiler, moulded in fibreglass by a tool from an original Montreal spoiler, can be supplied by Alfa Parts Exchange for USD 125. Mike Nakamura reports that this spoiler was quite a good fit on his Montreal, although the drill guide nub positions did not all line up perfectly with the fixing holes on his vehicle.

Giorgio Penatti can supply a fibreglass reproduction front spoiler which is composed of four separate sections. This allows it to be shipped at lower cost and with greater safety, and permits only the affected section to be replaced in the event of kerb damage.

Black Bart can supply reproduction front spoilers for USD 75 each plus shipping. They have been made a little stronger than the original. Chris Slade can supply reproduction spoilers for EUR 120 plus shipping. They have been produced with a mould which has been made by a UK fibreglass specialist from an original Montreal spoiler.

The UK bodyshop Autostyl has also made reproduction Montreal spoilers in black glass reinforced plastic (GRP) using a mould taken from an original part. They can be supplied with a rubber gasket.

The 1975 Montreal of Christian Lysholm has been fitted with a custom front spoiler fully integrated with the bodywork. It has ports for directing cooling air to the front brakes. The modifications, which include lowered suspension, extended rear wheel arches and extended and coloured side panels, were carried out by Skallebolle Autoservice in Funen, Denmark over 10 years ago but still look beautiful.

A German Montreal at the 2000 Nürburgring OGP also had a custom spoiler with twin air ports.

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NACA duct

The unusual 4-part front grille of the Montreal extends the full width of the vehicle. In addition to the radiator, oil cooler, electric klaxon and twin air horns, it protects two ram air ventilation ducts leading to the cockpit and two engine air intakes connected directly to the Tecnocar air filter box by a pair of 52 mm ID flexible sleeves.

The Montreal NACA air duct is purely cosmetic and was added to harmonize the bonnet bulge required to clear the Spica injector and air cleaner box. A silicone product should be used to ensure a watertight seal with the bonnet to prevent corrosion of the injection pump which is located immediately behind it. I suggest drilling out the single embedded 4 mm fixing screw at the front of the duct and replacing it by a stainless steel stud.

Although no air can pass through the simulated grille of the original duct, Montreal owners have been known to modify this component by removing the metal between the 6 vertical struts.

NACA, by the way, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, was active from 1915 to 1958. The Boeing 737-800 has a NACA duct for an air conditioning heat exchanger. (The protective flap retracts during flight). The engines of several Airbus aircraft, such as the A319, also have a small NACA duct.

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Covers

Several manufacturers supply protective covers for the Montreal.

In the case of fully-tailored covers remember to specify the number and position of any external rear-view mirrors when ordering.

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Large models

A number of manufacturers have produced scale models of the Montreal, some of which are now quite rare. Either of the two larger scale metal models makes a fine desktop piece:

Comparing the above two models, the Polistil/Politoys one has some finer detail representation than the Togi, particularly the engine, exhaust system and items such as the rear window demister and air inlet grilles. But the wheel styling and bonnet opening geometry are inaccurate and the headlamp shelters are too large and coloured black. The Togi model has better dimensional accuracy at the front and rear of the car, and more realistic wheels which steer, but the spare wheel is wrongly positioned and it lacks engine compartment and under-chassis detail. The bonnet profiling behind the NACA duct (which needs to be finished black in both cases) is too curved on the Polistil/Politoys model and too straight on the Togi one.

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Small models

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Related models

Many miniatures of vehicles which are related to the design of the Montreal are also available. Some examples:

A comprehensive database of over 4700 Alfa Romeo miniatures is maintained by Dirk & Hannelore Nehme (Tel/Fax No. +49 5541 31223), who have a fine collection of Montreal models. They can provide the latest version of the database as an Excel 5 file on CDROM. The database indicates the manufacturer, references, year, materials, colours, scale and rarity of each model and covers the period from 1910 to the present day.

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Display cases

Dust is an enemy of finely detailed miniatures. While some Montreal models (Nacoral, Polistil, Togi) were originally supplied with transparent plastic display cases, others (Mercury, Norev, SMTS) were sold without them. Collectors have found that the transparent plastic boxes in which certain Ferrero Rocher confectionery products are packaged make ideal model display cases! The 200g package of hazelnuts in milk chocolate and nut croquante is just right for 1/43 scale models, while the 375g package will house a 1/25 scale Polistil. Ferrero Rocher confectionery is available worldwide.

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Stamps

The Emirate of Ajman issued an attractive postage stamp featuring the Alfa Romeo Montreal on 19 August 1971 (Michel Catalogue No. 1169). First day covers and a souvenir stamp card were also issued. At the time Ajman was a sheikhdom under British protection and it joined the independent United Arab Emirates 2 months later. Although it is the smallest of the Trucial States (population over 100,000), Ajman apparently holds the world all-time record of 488 stamp issues in a single year.

Canada issued an Expo 67 stamp (Michel Catalogue No. 410, Scott No. 469, first edition 28 April 1967) to commemorate the World Expo at which the prototype show car Montreals were displayed. First day covers were issued and the stamp image was also reproduced as a postcard.

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Museums

There are well-preserved Montreals in several auto museums worldwide. A few examples:

The Montreal prototype from the Arese museum was exhibited by the German Alfa Club at the Oldtimer Grand Prix at Nürburgring in August 1997.

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Registers

Here are a few links to the websites of some clubs with Montreals:

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Identification

Four identification numbers are located in the Montreal engine compartment and boot:

In some vehicles the Car Model and Type Approval No. are also indicated on a red and white (10564 LHD cars) or green and white (10565 RHD cars) adhesive label on top of the right front wheel arch. The Part Nos. of the labels are 105.64.80.418.01 and 105.65.80.423.00 respectively. Some of the reproductions of the 10564 labels are incorrectly marked with the Part No. 105.64.418.01 instead of 105.64.80.418.01. The country code "3" in the circle with "E" indicates that Type Approval was granted in Italy.

A plate indicating the Car Model and Homologation No. was rivetted to the wheel arch in some vehicles. In others this information was stamped inside the water drainage channel on the body above the twin Bosch electronic ignition units.

In accordance with French regulations, the official Alfa Romeo representative SOFAR (Société Française Alfa Romeo) afixed an identification plate indicating the Type and Chassis No. of the vehicle as well as the homologated Poids Total autorisé en Charge (PTC, 1650 kg) and Poids Total Roulant autorisé (PTR, 2050 kg).

US regulations required the VIN to be located on the driver's side windshield post. When the Montreal of Doug Zaitz was federalized a supplementary Chassis No. plate was attached above the dashboard.

Different versions of the fluids chart (lubricants, brake fluid, coolant) were applied under the Montreal bonnet. Their Part Nos. range from 105.64.80.400.00 (black, in English and Italian, recommending AGIP or Shell lubricants) to 105.64.80.400.04 (yellow, in English, French and German, specifying original lubricants as Shell). In the early versions brake fluid is specified as ATE "Blau H" only and in the later versions as ATE "Blau S" or AGIP Super HD (Alfa Romeo "Normale 3681.69903").

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Chassis Nos

Enrico Lanzilotto, Bertone Public Relations Show Car Coordinator (Geneva Salon, March 1998), states that the Chassis Nos. were already engraved on the Montreal bulkheads which Alfa Romeo supplied with the floorpan components to the Bertone plant at Caselle. Within the plant they were referenced by quite different Bertone "Body Nos.". Gian Beppe Panicco says that no records were maintained of the dates on which particular Body Nos. were manufactured and there are no records linking Bertone Body Nos. with Alfa Romeo Chassis Nos.

The assembled body shells were then taken from Caselle to the main Bertone plant at Grugliasco for painting and finishing before being transported to the Alfa Romeo factory at Arese for the addition of the engines and the completion of the cars. At these intermediate stages no particular attempt was made to use the bulkheads in exact numerical sequence and the stocking arrangements were not strictly first-in-first-out.

As a result, although LHD Montreals carry Chassis Nos. in the range AR1425101 to AR1428862, while RHD cars are in the range AR1440101 to AR1440326, the sequence of Chassis Nos. differs from the order of manufacture of the vehicles. For example, Montreal AR1428832 was officially made in December 1976 while AR1428837 (5 numbers later) was made in March 1975. Both cars were originally shipped to Germany and are now owned by Thorodd Thoroddsson in Norway. As an extreme example, AR1425245 was made in 1971 whereas AR1425244 was made in 1977!

Having reviewed previously published lists and personally researched Alfa Romeo records at the Centro di Documentazione Storica at Arese, Bernhard Schalbetter compiled a new database of Montreal Chassis Nos. Permission was granted by Alfa Romeo (Elvira Ruocco) to publish the information on this website and the current version (March 2008) of the database is available in PDF format. Note that within each year the Chassis Nos. are listed in ascending numerical order. As explained above, this does not indicate the order in which the vehicles were manufactured!

The Montreal data given in Luigi Fusi's "All Alfa Romeo Cars from 1910" (3rd edition published in 1978 by Emmeti Grafica s.a.s., Milan) are quite superficial. 1971: Chassis Nos. 10564.1425101 to 10564.1425668, Engine Nos. 00564.00001 to 00564.00668. 1972: Chassis Nos. 10564.1425669 to 10564.1428045, Engine Nos. 00564.00669 to 00564.03045. (No data are given for later years). Nevertheless Fusi's estimate of a total of 3925 Montreals manufactured has been widely copied by the motoring press.

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Records

You can interrogate Alfa Romeo's factory records for your Montreal by communicating the Chassis No. to the Centro Documentazione, Fiat Auto, Viale Alfa Romeo, I-20020 Arese (MI), Italy. Fax (+39) 02 931 5746. There is no charge for this service. They can normally indicate:

Then use this calendar to see on what day of the week your car was built.

The date of manufacture may reveal that your Montreal is much older than you thought! Some late-1972 cars sat in showrooms for over a year before finding buyers who were not too intimidated by the oil crisis. Most cars sold in 1976 and 1977 may have been built before the end of 1975 using body shells manufactured before July 1974 - see End of the line.

Jaeger components, such as the main instruments and the steering column switch, are individually stamped with their date of manufacture. A date may also be stamped on the insides of the fusebox covers. These component data do not indicate the date of manufacture of the vehicle, but they do set an earliest limit to the date of its assembly.

In the UK, cars manufactured before 1 January 1973 are exempt from vehicle excise duty. From 1 April 2014, the cut-off date will be changed to 1 January 1974. Cars manufactured prior to 1 February 1975, or that were first registered before 1 August 1975, do not require full emissions testing, just a visual exhaust check.

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Production

Between 1971 and 1977 a total of 3917 Montreals were manufactured, comprising 3737 LHD (105.64) and 180 RHD (105.65) versions. Although a RHD prototype was shown at Earls Court in October 1971, it has been reported by Robert Winwood that the production RHD cars were assembled in a single run at the Iso plant in Modena during 1972. However, Alfa Romeo records show that they were manufactured from 1973 and they did not begin to enter the UK until May 1974. About 9 or 10 RHD conversions (with 00564 LHD engines having the distributor on the right) are believed to have been made in 1971-72 by Thomson & Taylor, Bell & Colville and Mario Dellioti in Birmingham. Original RHD Montreals have instruments with labels in English instead of Italian, deg F instead of deg C, and speedometer figures in both mph and km/h. Paul Blank reports that a LHD Montreal which was imported to Australia was dismantled for conversion to RHD when fairly new and is still awaiting reassembly!

Montreal production figures per year for LHD cars are believed to have been approximately:

A total of 155 Montreals were sold in Britain and 480 in France. Peter Schweiss reports that the central register of the Federal Motor Transport Authority (Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt) in Flensburg shows that 135 Montreals are registered in Germany today (including temporarily unregistered cars). Alfa Romeo Australia imported about 100 Montreals between February 1974 and December 1975 and well over 30 of them are believed to have survived today (plus at least 3 private imports). Laurent Schandeler reports that there are currently 12 Montreals in Luxembourg plus 4 parts cars. There are at least 7 Montreals (plus a parts car) in Norway, over 10 in South Africa, 3 in Argentina, 3 in Hungary and 4 or 5 (one of which is dismantled) in New Zealand. José Pacheco Alves reports that at least 9 of 17 Montreals that came to Portugal have survived. Timo Jaatinen reports that one Montreal was imported to Finland when new and there are at present 7 in the country. One Montreal was imported to Iceland when new and there are now 2 in that country. Piotr Nagórski in Poznań owns the only Montreal in Poland. Around 1973, 10 Montreals were imported to Japan and at least 7 are still in the country, including 2 in Saitama. Two Montreals were imported to Iran, but neither is in running condition today.

The Montreal was never officially marketed in the USA and the Montreals which found their way Stateside were personal imports. A report in Hemmings Sports & Exotic Car for November 2006 that there are only 14 Montreals in the US is entirely false. A US Montreal Register that was maintained by the late Ken Shaff listed 76 Montreal owners in March 1990 and this website includes actual photos of over 30 US Montreals. Doug Zaitz reports that 25 year old vehicles are now exempt from compliance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and 21 year old vehicles from EPA (emissions) requirements. US vehicle importation regulations are published by the NHTSA. The EPA has a website and a Faxback Information system on vehicle importation at 202-564-9660. Document #101 is an index of the faxes available and #115 appears to be the one which Montreal importers should review. However, emission testing requirements for classic cars vary from state to state (exemption in California 30 years after first registration, 25 years in some other states).

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Modifications

So few Montreals were built after the oil crisis and European speed restrictions struck that it was somewhat neglected by Alfa Romeo and relatively few significant factory changes were made to the 1970 vehicle design:

Some of the very first production Montreals had minor differences in items like the NACA duct, quarter window winders and chrome trim at the base of the windscreen pillars. Some vehicles had additional decorative trim surrounding the headlamp shelters. During production other small design changes were made to details such as the fuel filters, the idling air equalizers and the central console (reinforcement bracket for cigarette lighter, changes to gear lever gaiter mounting and trim). The water pump tee was modified to allow the addition of an air conditioner. In addition, in order to meet different national regulations, there were variations in the lighting and turn indicator arrangements of models shipped to different countries.

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End of the line

It has been reported by Luigi Giuliani that production of the Montreal effectively ceased in 1975 and the cars sold in 1976 and 1977 were actually manufactured earlier. Gian Beppe Panicco of Bertone has stated (in December 1990) that Montreal body production ended in July 1974.

A report by the Italian car magazine "Automotor Magazine" (Issue 89, February 1997, page 123) that the last Montreals may have been assembled under contract by Iso Rivolta has been denied by both Alfa Romeo and Carrozzeria Bertone. According to research by Maurizio Bedina, an Iso Rivolta minority shareholder called Paolo Curti and partners claim that they bought some of the remaining materials and moved them to Rome where they continued to assemble a small number of clone vehicles until they ran out of essential parts. Paolo Curti claims to have shipped the last such car to a Swiss customer in 1994.

Some different internal trim items, such as vent window control knobs, wooden instead of metal door kick panels, and ashtrays without the Montreal logo, were fitted to the last Montreals to be manufactured. Other changes which I have seen on late models include a larger diameter brake booster. To provide clearance for this, the clutch master cylinder was positioned further forwards, and a special angled headlamp shelter vacuum reservoir was fitted to accommodate it. Some cars have the angled vacuum reservoir but the original size of brake booster and clutch master cylinder.

Some late Montreals have a narrower rear seat squab than earlier cars, which permits the front seats to be moved further back to accommodate a tall driver and passenger. To permit this, the normal seat support member was replaced by an angled one. The length of the bucket section is reduced from 25 cm in the standard seat to 20 cm in the narrower one. According to the Dutch SCARB records of Wil Mertens, this change was made in late 1975 and affected about the last 100 Montreals to be manufactured.

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Prices

The Alfa Romeo list price for the Montreal was ITL 5,200,000 in 1971, rising to ITL 6,779,100 at the end of 1973, to ITL 9,570,000 at the beginning of 1975 and ITL 11,505,000 at the end of that year. In the UK it was launched at GBP 5077, rising to GBP 5549 in August 1972 (metallic paint GBP 129 extra) and to GBP 6999 by mid-1976. In France the Montreal was priced at FRF 60,000 in 1973. (Sport-Auto claims that this sum was equivalent to FRF 270,000 in 1998). In Germany the basic Montreal was offered at DEM 35,000 in 1975, with supplements of DEM 750 for metallic paint, DEM 2400 for the air conditioner, DEM 660 for electric windows and DEM 167 for the front spoiler. These prices were maintained in 1976 and a genuine leather interior was offered for an additional DEM 1580. In Australia the starting price for a RHD Montreal in 1974 was AUD 14,400 (metallic paint AUD 193, air conditioner AUD 574), rising to AUD 17,490 for the last one sold.

In Switzerland the vehicle was listed at CHF 39,500 in 1971-73 and CHF 39,700 in 1974-75. (The Montreal was no longer officially catalogued here in 1976-77). The following factory options were offered:

Today USD 1 = CHF 0.95, but in 1972 the exchange rate was USD 1 = CHF 3.92, making the basic vehicle about USD 10,077. After the 1970 Geneva Salon it had been expected that the Montreal would be available in the USA for about USD 9000, but this was not to be.

The 1/2006 edition of Eurotax "InterClassic" valued the Montreal in Switzerland as follows:

Prices for Austria and Germany were given as: Prices for Italy were given as: Prices for France were given as: Prices for the UK were given as: Prices for the USA and Canada were given as:

Since that date Montreal prices have been steadily increasing in all countries, and recently some remarkable prices have been attained at classic car auctions. In November 2006, Bonhams & Goodman auctioned a low-mileage 1974 Montreal in Sydney for AUD 36,000. In 1999 a California buyer paid USD 35,000 for a fine example that was shipped to France. In 2009, the car was resold at auction in Monaco by Bonhams for EUR 31,000 and shipped back to the US.

In early 2013, Bonhams sold a Montreal at a Spa Classic auction for GBP 36,800. In July 2013, AR1425375 was sold for EUR 72,199 at the Artcurial auction in Monaco; while in August of that year, AR1426330 fetched USD 99,000 at the Gooding & Company auction at Pebble Beach.

In January 2014, 1971 Montreal AR1425803 was auctioned by Gooding & Company in Scottsdale, Arizona, for USD 176,000. Former owner Bill Greenslade, who purchased this car in 1995, had offered it for USD 49,000 on Bring A Trailer in August 2011.

In September 2009, Classic Cars gave the following price guide:

Two years later, the prices had been raised to GBP 24,000, GBP 19,000, GBP 11,000 and GBP 6500 respectively.

In February 2009, Classic & Sports Car Magazine reported that a good/restored Montreal fetched GBP 9648 at auction.

Practical Classics gave the following price guide:

They rated the vehicle as "Stunning looker, sounds good on paper but complex engine scares everyone".

Classic Cars once rated the Montreal practicality as 1 star, which it defined as "For millionaires, retired mechanics or Spike Milligan". (But note that an example of a car that the magazine accorded 5 star rating for practicality is the 1930 Austin Seven saloon, 747 cc, top speed 50 mph!).

In September 2008, Ruoteclassiche valued a good Montreal at EUR 20,000.

In Japan, the price of a Montreal varies from about JPY 2.5 Million (USD 23,000) in running condition to JPY 5.5 Million (USD 50,500) in mint condition.

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Offers

To avoid pitfalls, potential owners who are not familiar with the Montreal could find it useful to read the "Buying a Montreal" section in my book before committing to a purchase.

From time to time, Montreals are offered for sale on eBay.

It should be noted that it can be very risky to buy a classic car without inspecting it personally. Even high resolution photos can fail to reveal defects that are visible to the naked eye, and a road test should be part of every evaluation. Be very wary of purchasing a cheap car that requires major restoration work. In the end, this may require much greater expenditure than the extra cost for a Montreal that is in good condition.

Here are some links to websites that usually list some Montreals for sale:

Montreals have also been sold at auction.

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Homologation

The authorities in Bern homologated the Montreal for public road use in Switzerland as Type CH 0017.10 on 2 July 1970, some 14 weeks after the 40th Geneva Salon closed its doors. The test vehicle had chassis No. 1425101.

The French authorities in Paris homologated the Montreal on 28 June 1971 (Page 1, 255 Kbytes; Page 2, 275 Kbytes). The prototype vehicle presented for examination was chassis No. 1425102, at the time fitted with engine No. 2604.

With a view to competition participation, the standard 2593 cc Montreal was homologated by the CSAI in FIA Group 3 (GT series) on 1 April 1972, after the required minimum production of 1000 cars was reached in January of that year. An extension to include the normal front spoiler was added on 1 May.

At the same time Group 4 (GT special) variants of the vehicle were homologated with some bodywork (wheel flare) and rear suspension changes and a few Autodelta clutch and engine modifications. Heavier connecting rods (105.59.02.020.01) were installed, the counterweights of the crankshaft (105.55.02.100.056 AD) were altered, the flywheel was lightened from 8.4 kg to 5.8 kg, and the sliding block system of the Giulia GTA was adapted to locate the rear axle.

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3-litre engine

Subsequently Autodelta made a small number of higher performance hybrid engines comprising a combination of 33 and Montreal parts. The 3-litre (2997 cc) variant of the standard 2593 cc engine had a single-plane steel crank. A 3-litre Group 4 racing Montreal shown by Autodelta at the International Racing Car Show in London in January 1973 was claimed to develop 370 bhp at 9000 rpm. Following the event, the car was exhibited for some time in the Edgware Road showroom of Alfa Romeo's UK subsidiary. A 1/43 model of this car by Reiner Götzke (RGM Design) was produced by BBR.

In 1973, Montreals were entered for the world championship 5th round at Spa (No. 44, Pizzinato) and the 7th round at Nürburgring (No. 64, Dieter Gleich and Dieter Weizinger for Alfa Romeo Deutschland) but Pizzinato failed to qualify and Gleich failed to finish. At this time the car was still painted green but had a raised black bonnet area above the engine. In February 2006, a 1/43 model of this car which was manufactured in China for Metro Sales Promotion was sold in Italy with issue No. 14 of the "Alfa Romeo Sport Collection" supplement to La Gazzetta dello Sport, published by Fabbri Editori. Repainted in white livery, Gleich's car was later raced with Nos. 18 and 360 by Stahlberg, an Alfa Romeo dealer in Hamburg who had done much to promote the Montreal in Germany. It was recently discovered in storage in Germany and purchased by Ivo Salvadori, who runs a repair shop for Italian cars in Basel, Switzerland. The car is at present painted orange but Ivo plans to restore it to its original "London Show" condition by 2006.

The Bobcor 3-litre racing Montreal is described in the next section.

Two modified Alfetta GTV shells were equipped with 3-litre Montreal engines and a 340 bhp marine version of this engine was also developed (see later sections). Unfortunately the premature dismantling of the engine production line at Alfa Romeo thwarted plans by Autodelta to have 400 3-litre Montreal engines produced for a series of Alfetta GT 3000s (to permit Group 4 homologation of this vehicle).

The 97 mm centre spacing of the outer cylinder pairs is sufficient to allow the standard Montreal block to be bored out to accept 92 mm liners for 86 mm dia pistons. Several Montreal owners including Maurizio Bedina, Allan Kramer and John Wheeler have successfully bored out the standard engine to 2838 - 2998 cc. John has provided a summary of the details of his 3-litre engine conversion and the resulting dyno data, which shows 227 ft lbs torque at 5500 rpm and 290 bhp at 8000 rpm. He attributes the performance improvement in part to the introduction of a fully mapped electronic management system for fuel injection and ignition. Note that this engine has now been sold.

The 3-litre Montreal engine of Mal Nicholson (Trentside Classic & Sportscars) develops about 240 bhp. The bonnet of the car has been modified to clear the carburettors and more direct side exhaust pipes have been fitted. Mal participated in the "Italian days" event at the historical Zandvoort circuit in June 2003. (1.4MB mpg video by Dirk & Hannelore Nehme)

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Bobcor racing

In 1970, A. Robert (Bob) Cozza, who bought his first Alfa in 1961 while an engineer with Lockheed Aircraft, resigned his position as a corporate vice-president to open a small car dealership and chose sports car racing as a showcase for his new venture. As the business expanded and racing successes accumulated, Bob negotiated Alfa Romeo sponsorship for a racing Montreal to be built by Autodelta. In 1973, the 3-litre Bobcor Racing Montreal was entered for the 10th round of the International Makes' Championship at Watkins Glen (No. 25, Bert Everett and Teodoro Zeccoli) but failed to finish due to gearbox failure. The car was extensively modified and in 1974 took part in several races and finished 27th in the 6 hour IMSA Championship round at Road Atlanta. It again participated at Watkins Glen but on this occasion engine failure occurred after 6 laps. After Paul Nichter was classed 35th and 41st but failed to finish in both rounds at Laguna Seca, the Montreal adventure into international-level racing was terminated when Autodelta support was withdrawn.

Before he died in March 2010, Bob Cozza provided an account of the Bobcor Racing Montreal story. He summarized: "The car was super fast....we blew by Corvettes, Porsches, Mustangs, etc, in the straights but it couldn't stop or corner as it should and the Type 33 engine or ZF box would always fail after two hours or so".

In 1978, the Bobcor Racing Montreal was leased for one year to Jose Guttirez in Venezuela and returned as a wreck. While Bobcor were starting to rebuild it, the car was bought by Luis Cattenna, a gentleman with a private race track in El Salvador, and shipped there in pieces. It was then raced for two years as a Club Sport but caught fire in a hillclimb event in Mexico. The car was later owned by the late Jerry Galich and is now undergoing restoration by his son Victor Galich in Huntington Beach, California. By the winter of 2005 it was planned to have it ready for racing by a few well-known drivers from the period. A sister car is also being constructed. This will have a relocated engine and modern drive train and was to have been ready in the spring of 2007.

Models of the Bobcor Racing Montreal have been produced by RGM Design and M4 s.a.s.

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Hybrid engine

In early 2001 John Wheeler acquired one of the Autodelta engines (#0226) which had been in store for over 25 years, totally immersed in Castrol R and with almost zero miles.

This engine is fitted with a single-plane steel crankshaft instead of the normal Montreal cross-plane one. The stroke is 64.4 mm but the engine has been bored out to 86 mm (92 mm dia liners). The compression ratio is 11.25:1. The connecting rods are standard Montreal and the pistons 86 mm forged slipper section. The inlet throttles are the slide type of the Daytona 33/2.

John has made a detailed list of the differences between this engine and the normal Montreal one. He has obtained dyno data of 251 ft lbs torque at 6000 rpm and 336 bhp at 8500 rpm. The engine is now performing well in a historic Cooper-Alfa Formula 1 car.

In 2008, a similar engine was acquired by Dutch Montreal owner Arnoud Duiven, who has fitted it in his Montreal. At present the air horns are not mounted, so that the original bonnet fits, and a modified air filter is fitted on the throttle bodies. Arnoud is designing a new intake system to optimise the performance.

In 2005, Ward Witkowski purchased a special Montreal equipped with a similar Autodelta engine from the estate of the late John Murphy. (See Ward's Personal story in the "Montreal owners" section for details). Unlike the racing Montreals, only the large NACA duct reveals that the car does not have the standard engine. The Autodelta engine has Spica injection, but with the rack controlled by an external mechanism, and at present has butterfly throttles instead of the sliding plate system. The RIAR have indicated that only three Montreals of this type were built. Ward is at present restoring the car to its original condition.

Another Autodelta Montreal engine is in storage at the Alfa Romeo Museum in Arese.

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Montreal GTV

In 1975 Carlo Chiti's team at Autodelta fitted a version of the 3-litre 340 bhp Montreal marine engine to two special light-alloy Alfetta GTV shells. Described at the time as an Alfetta GT3000, this hybrid car has been referred to as a GTV8 after the appearance of the GTV6. One of these cars was entered in the rally of Elecar, Piacenza, Italy, in December 1975 but failed to finish due to failure of the gearbox (in spite of its having been strengthened). After further improvements were made for the 1976 session, the car had a few racing successes before the project was abandoned to save costs and the two drivers Jean Claude Andruet and Ballestrieri left the team.

One of these cars was located near Milan and fully restored by Bob van der Sluis in Holland. It has been described by Jos Hugense in the Dutch Alfa Romeo Club publication "Het Klaverblaadje", No. 73, 1996. Ed McDonough's impressions on driving the car at the 1997 SCARB meeting at the Assen circuit are recorded in "Assen Alfas", Auto Italia, No. 19, March 1998. The car is now owned by Sauerbier Beheer Inc. It is believed that the second car was sold to Japan in 1990.

In 1977, on the initiative of Horst Reiff, Alfa Romeo's German distributor in Aachen, a very small number of GTVs were equipped with the Montreal's normal 200 bhp engine. These GTV shells were the regular steel ones and only the bulge on the bonnet betrayed that they were fitted with the V8 engine. This powerful coupé was marketed in Germany as the Alfetta GTV 2.6i V8 for DEM 50,000. 0-100 km/h acceleration for the hybrid vehicle remained as for the Montreal, but the maximum speed was claimed to exceed 230 km/h.

A fine original Alfetta GTV 2.6i V8 is maintained by Stefan Schmölzl in Bavaria, South Germany. These pictures show the engine bay from the side, from the front, and the car in 1992 and in 2000.

Starting with parts from an incomplete original car, Manfred Kopp has completely rebuilt an Alfetta GTV 2.6i V8 which is beautifully finished in metallic champagne colour. This picture shows the engine bay. Manfred maintains an Alfetta GT Club website.

Richard Anderson and Martin Darch are currently making a replica Alfetta GTV 2.6i V8 to compete in the Classic Adelaide and possibly the Targa Tasmania events. Martin would be very pleased to hear from anyone who has original documentary material on this model.

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Marine Montreal

Marine adaptations of the Montreal and 33/3 engines by Autodelta achieved several powerboat competition victories in the early 1970s. To comply with the Racers 2500 category, the displacement of the 2593 cc Montreal engine was diminished to 2466 cc by reducing the bore from 80 mm to 78 mm. Apart from the new Autodelta pistons and liners (AD.105.55.02.031.026), the principal modifications concerned the engine supports, the exhaust manifolds (AD.105.55.01.072.008) and output couplers and the oil/coolant heat exchanger (AD.105.55.31.045.019). Autodelta produced a descriptive brochure for the "Motore Marino Alfa Romeo Montreal".

This engine, which weighed 190 kg, developed 190 bhp in standard form and 260 bhp in a tuned version. In December 1971, Franco Giliberti's Montreal-powered speedboat carried off 3 world records in this class at Sarnico on Lake Garda. In 1973 other Montreal-powered racers such as Celli and Popoli were victorious at Lignano Sabbiadoro and Cremona, while a Montreal-powered speedboat built for Leopoldo Casanova of Colorno (Parma) by Lucini-Frigerio in Como won the R4 2500 class world championship at Sabaudia. Casanova raced with this engine until 1977, when Autodelta replaced it by a 3000 cc version that developed 320 bhp at 8200 rpm.

After a long period in storage, this boat (without its engine, which had been returned to Autodelta) was bought by Guido Romani in Milan. In 2007, Guido was able to acquire an original Autodelta 3000 cc engine for it, complete with Spica and 33-style slide throttles, which he exchanged for 4 dual Weber 40 carburettors. The boat has now been fully restored and is one of the fastest vessels to participate in historic racing events. It has also been exhibited at major automobile shows, such as the Autodelta 50th Anniversary event at Monza in September 2013.

One Popoli speedboat is exhibited outside the basement floor of the Alfa Romeo Museum, Arese, Italy. With a 2465 cc 78 x 64.4 mm Montreal engine tuned to 315 bhp at 8800 rpm, Leopoldo Casanova achieved a world record speed of 225 km/h with this speedboat on the Lake of Sabaudia. This boat was made specially to break the world record, and was never raced in circuits. Another Popoli speedboat, made in 1972 for Antonio Dosi of Vigevano, was originally fitted with a 6-cylinder Alfa Romeo 2500 engine but was later upgraded with a Spica-injected Autodelta hybrid Montreal V8. Dosi raced this boat successfully for 5 years, achieving a 200 km/h run at Sabaudia in 1979. This boat, which has special alloy cladding on the bodywork and a forward pilot position, is currently being restored by Guido Romani.

Offshore boats equipped with twin Montreal engines competed successfully in the OP2 class (limit 8200 cc) and in September 1973 Caprara and Scalabrin's speedboat UFO 66 established a new European record in this category at Alassio.

Several different versions of the Montreal marine engine were produced, including a 260 bhp version of the normal 2593 cc one. A marine version of the 3-litre Montreal engine with a compression ratio of 11:1 developed up to 340 bhp, while an Autodelta adaptation of a 4-litre version of the 33/3 engine raised the power to 500 bhp for a weight of 180 kg. The all-Italian offshore powerboat Dart, which was equipped with two such engines, was capable of speeds of about 150 km/h.

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Tasman engine

Another 2500 cc version of Autodelta's 33/2 V8 engine was developed to meet the "Formula Tasman" specification. These engines were run in various open-wheeler (formula) cars such as the Mildren Alfa (Australia) which competed successfully in the "Tasman series" of races in Australia and New Zealand. The success of these 2500 cc engines was a factor in the decision to equip the Montreal with an enlarged version of the 33/2 engine. Autodelta's "Relazione Prova Motore" sheet for this Spica-injected V8 "2500 Montreal" engine indicates that it developed 262.5 bhp at 8400 rpm, falling to 245.5 bhp at 9000 rpm.

In March 1968 an Alfa Romeo "2500 Tasmania" engine was offered by Autodelta to Don Black of ARI, New Jersey, for ITL 6,000,000 (USD 10,125 landed USA). One such engine was sold to Leon Greff for use in his tube-frame (GTV shell) drag car.

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Contemporary competition

Specially-prepared Montreals have also participated in contemporary competition events on road and track. In 2001 Philip Hehir commenced racing a lime-green Montreal prepared by Alfa racer Chris Snowdon. The rebuilt car had its first trials on English circuits and is now in New Zealand for the summer racing season there and in Australia. It has been extensively modified for competition work and a sturdy roll cage has been welded into the frame. The car has been lightened, the brakes, suspension and drivetrain have been modified and the Spica system has been replaced by an OMEX controlled electronic fuel injection system.

Richard Anderson's car has regularly taken part in the Classic Adelaide rally in Australia. With co-driver Martin Darch, Richard achieved 5th place in the 1997 event, 3rd place in 1998, 1999 and 2000, and 7th place in 2001. This Montreal was built from a low milage road car and the engine and gearbox, which have never been removed, are completely standard. Average speeds on the Classic Adelaide are extremely high and the Montreal is almost unbeatable on the fastest stages. Hence the car regularly beats specially prepared Porsches and BDA Escorts with special equipment such as the best gearboxes.

French drivers Stanislas Machoïr and his wife Clair Machoïr De Buffon have recently had notable successes with their Group 4 racing Montreal. In the 3rd Tour de Espana in November 2001 Machoïr and co-driver Jaquinot were placed 9th in the competition section, ahead of 7 Ferraris, and gained 3rd prize in the post-1965 category. 18 cars out of 82 starters failed to finish this tough 5-day trial over 10 hill climbs and 3 circuits. The car was also well placed in the 2001 and 2002 Tours Auto and the 2002 and 2004 Tours d'Italia, performing in these events without any mechanical problems.

In 2002 a racing Montreal driven by Thomas Häfner participated in several Scuderia Alfa Classico events including that at the Lausitz EuroSpeedway in Germany on 21-23 June. Thomas was victorious in his class at the Oschersleben Motopark event on 26-28 July 2002 with an average speed of 124.68 km/h. Montreals have also participated in the annual classic events at the Hockenheim ring and Nürburgring in Germany and the Circuit Park at Zandvoort in the Netherlands.

Since 2005, the Montreal of Ralph Ortiz has achieved many racing successes in South Australia, winning several overall championships as well as the under 3-litre class in his state. Ralph's car, possibly the only black Montreal in Australia, has a carbon fibre bonnet and has been lightened to 1000 kg. It has 1200 lb springs at the front and a lowered rear end, with a front suspension camber kit and a Watt's linkage at the rear. It is fitted with 8J x 15" Center Line Convo Pro wheels, which weigh only 5.5 kg each, and has upgraded front brake callipers and discs. Except for a Motec EFI system, custom extractors and a racing exhaust, the engine is standard and develops 197 bhp. Ralph is currently collecting the components to build a full race engine.

In 2003, at the age of 85, Australian Montreal owner Neal Charge and his son Chris decided to enter their pristine car in the Targa Tasmania with minimum modifications. In that first rally the Charge's Montreal was placed 3rd in its class. It went on to gain 1st place in its class and category in 2004, and 2nd in 2005, securing them a Gold Plate trophy. Neal and Chris also participated in the Classic Adelaide in 2003, 2004 and 2005 and were class and category winners in 2004. They also competed in the 2005 Mount Buller Sprint (2nd in class) as well as historic demonstrations during the 2005 Australian Grand Prix and 2007 Phillip Island events. The team again entered for the Targa Tasmania in 2008, when Neal won another class victory at 90 years of age, and in 2009, securing them a Platinum Plate trophy.

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Montreal jeep

In the 1980s the Italian owner of a 1954 Alfa Romeo 1900M (AR51) military 4x4 utility vehicle replaced the original 65 bhp engine with the 200 bhp Montreal power plant. This unique "Montreal jeep" is now owned by Jeremy Upsall in the UK, who reports that it makes collecting spares for his business more interesting! The forward-hinging bonnet, like that of the Jaguar E-Type, gives splendid access to the V8 engine. The original 4-speed gearbox has been retained but a heavy-duty roll cage has been fitted, the chassis has been substantially reinforced and the original drum brakes replaced with discs.

This jeep with a difference is reviewed in "Alfa Romeo Matta Jeep" by Chris Savill, Auto Italia, No. 47, July 2000. Back issues of the magazine, which also contains nice pictures of the Montreals of Geoff Poole and John Stewart, are obtainable from Nicola Thomas of Intermarque Publications Ltd.

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Marciano 268A

In 1972, a unique Montreal engined GT with styling clues from the 33 Stradale was built for the Italian collector Vincenzo Marciano. This exclusive car has been named the "Alfa Romeo Marciano 268A" (2.6l, 8 cyl engine). It has a lightweight body on a molybdenum steel tube frame, a Ferrari windscreen and headlights, and a Jaguar differential. The engine has been fitted with electronic fuel injection. The car saw some competition in the 1970s and early 1980s, and now appears occasionally at European concours d'elegance.

A 1/43 model of the Marciano 268A is available from ABC Brianza in kit (BRK43234) or ready-built (ABC234) form.

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Montreal highboy

In 2007, engine tuning specialist Jim Steck equipped a restored 1932 Ford Highboy with a Montreal engine. A 2-minute video of this fun roadster has been produced by Brian Berger. The background music of the video is Chuck Berry's "No particular place to go."

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Montreal cabriolet

In April 2003, "Motor Klassik" published an image of an elegant Montreal cabriolet, which it claimed had been built by brothers Mario and Serafino Marazzi of Varese for a rich furniture entrepreneur. Unfortunately the item, authored by "Don T. Beserious", was an imaginative April Fool hoax and the image had been created by manipulation of a photo of the coupé!

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"Montreal II"

32 years after the Montreal debut at Expo '67, another big GT coupé dream car from the Bertone - Alfa Romeo partnership was unveiled at the 1999 Geneva Salon, which was attended by over 690,000 visitors.

Describing Bertone's stylish new Alfa 166-based concept car "Bella", Automobil Revue 7/99 comments: "Auch an den Montreal, das exklusive V8-Coupé der siebziger Jahre, soll mit diesem Einzelstück erinnert werden." As in 1967, Quattroruote 3/99 commented: "non è impossibile una produzione di serie..." but this did not come about.

The Alfa Romeo Montreal precedent is also evoked by Bertone, who describe the Bella as "an elegant coupé full of zest, for grand tourism driving on long trips".

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"Montreal III"

At the 2002 Geneva Salon, ItalDesign's Giorgetto Giugiaro unveiled the Alfa Romeo Brera, a new V8 GT concept car that has been hailed as a Montreal for the 21st century. It is named after the Brera Palace in Milan, the home of an academy of fine art and a rich picture gallery. The car had a sleek profile, a creative interior style with two large instrument pods reminiscent of the Montreal, and a successful rear design with stylish tail lamp clusters.

Interviewed by the director of "Quattroruote", Giugiaro referred to the inspiration from his earlier association with Alfa Romeo prior to the completion of the Montreal prototype for Expo '67. "...l'Alfa è stata il mio primo amore: nel periodo Bertone lavorai alla Giulia GT, alla Montreal e poi alla Canguro del 70: proprio lei mi tornava sempre in mente ogni volta che tracciavo una linea della mia nuova auto".

Like the Montreal, the Brera prototype was a rear-wheel drive 2+2 GT luxury coupé, designed for a longitudinal Alfa Romeo 90 deg V8 engine. It had an elegant carbon fibre composite body 17 cm longer, 22 cm wider and 8.5 cm higher than the Montreal. The production version, which became available in 2006, lost its scissor doors and has a tamer range of engines and interior style but is competitively priced.

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Expo souvenirs

While innumerable souvenirs of Expo '67 were produced, very few contain any reference to the Alfa Romeo Montreal show cars. A 367-page "Expo67 Montreal Canada" memorial album was published in 1968 by Thomas Nelson & Sons. It contains an unusual shot taken inside the "Man the Producer" pavilion.

In the context of the 30th anniversary of the Expo, Imavision 21 published in 1997 a set of VHS/NTSC video cassettes comprised largely of original film from Radio Canada archives. The set includes a coffret of four 2-hour colour videos, which is also available separately, plus an additional black-and-white 34-minute video "Expo67 En chantier" describing the construction of the islands and some of the pavilions. A reproduction season passport to Expo '67 was included with "En chantier". The sound tracks of all the videos are in French. The complete set is still available for CAD 54.95 plus shipping (and taxes in Canada). Contact Bridget Murphy (Co-ordinator of Operations) for purchase. A new 4h30m coffret of 4 DVDs is now available for CAD 33.95.

An excellent 47 x 63 cm aerial colour photograph of Expo '67 by Gordon F. Callaghan merits framing. Other readily found Expo '67 souvenirs include a commemorative plate, ashtray, generic pseudo vehicle licence plates and tag plates. A modern retrospective of the context of Expo '67 is given by Pierre Berton in his book "1967: Canada's Turning Point" (ISBN 0-770-42776-6, published in 1997 by Bantam-Seal),

The summer 1967 menu of the Montreal Playboy Club, opened that year at 2081 Aylmer Street, indicates how far the dollar went at that time.

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Links to related topics:

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Comments

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Reader appreciation - thanks for the encouragement!

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Acknowledgements

Many Alfa Romeo enthusiasts, Montreal owners and friends kindly provided information, photographs and encouragement for the preparation of this website. I am indebted to Geri Accola, Reine Agapuu, Spiros Agathagelidis, Achim Agne, José Pacheco Alves, Jens Andresen, Juhani Anttila, Dudi Appleton, Rob Arbon, Domenic Ardino, Tor Willy Austerslått, Ron Avery, Håkan Bäck, Bahman Azimzadeh, Sakis Bairamis, Steve Balmforth, Nash Bapasola, Gae Barkman, Matt Bartleet, Dale Baston, Jules Becker, Maurizio Bedina, Gianni Benetollo, Pierre Beranger-Fenouillet, Brian Berger, Berge Bergesen, Cristián Bertschi, Ton Bervoets, Frank Bittner, Jean-Claude Blanc, Paul Blank, Remco de Boer, Baktash Bootorabi, Aidan Boran, Pat Braden, David Brainard, Dave Bramwell, Philippe Bressolette, Daniel Brosch, Gene Brown, Dominik Brücher, Craig Buckley, Massimo Busuoli, Silvio Calgari, Ian Campbell, Cristiano Carabelli, Paolo Carolei, Philippe Cauche, Sandro Cerato, Chris and Neal Charge, Jim Chase, Charles KS Choo, Sergio Cittolin, Phil Coates, Luc Colemont, Graham Colman, Paul Coppi, Regan Copple, Felice Corini, Germain Cornet, Didier Courtiade, Bob Cozza, Fritz Craemer, Massimo & Giuseppina Crippa, Franz Dahinden, Joe D'Amico, John Darack, Martin Darch, Jean-Luc De Fanti, François Daubus de Nantes, Matt Dawson, Eligio Floscoli, Federico De Franceschi, Anton Deja, Philippe Delaage, Alessandro De Martini, Loris De Sordi, Dawie De Villiers, Mauro De Vita, Daniele Dezzi, Peter Diamantes, Thomas Dick-Freppon, Larry Dickman, Val Dietrich, Gianni Di Fatta, Robert Di Girolami, Ferdinando Di Matteo, Susan Dixon, Jon Dooley, Jim Dougherty, Arnoud Duiven, David Dunkling, Johannes Eckstein, Daniel Emonts, Guido Enderle, Nick England, Ernst Erb, Donato Errante, Tom Fabienne, Amedeo Fattore, Sebastien Faures, Joseph Santos-Fernandes, Joe Ferreira, Tom Freiberger, Keiichi Fujikawa, Alberto Furegon, Zohar Furstenberg, Andrew Gaal, Victor Galich, Marco Gamba, Steve Gamble, Glenn Gaudin, Ed & Shayna Geller, Adie Gerber, Francesco Giampà, David Gibbins, Max Gilera, Sarah Ginn, Luigi Giuliani, Christian Giusti, Bjørnar Gjein, Martin Godbey, Keith Goring, Fabio Grandi, Michael Gravgaard, John Greason, Delmas Greene, Bill & Terry Greenslade, Rufus Greenway, Francois Gualtieri, Stefano Guccione, Achim Guenther, Leif Gustafsson, Thierry Hackenheimer, Erik Häger, Leopold Hamberger, Frank Hanel, Steven and Vera Hasic, Philip Hehir, Beatrice Heine, Stefan Heins, Raoul Helfen, Robert Herd, Val Herrera, John Hertzman, Tom & Joyce Himes, Rich Hirsch, Ogasawara Hisato, Andrew Hodgkins, Steven Hoepel, Robin Hoeven, Thorsten Hoffmann, Nick Holding, George Houthuyzen, Jos Hugense, Mark Iampietro, Wes Ingram, Paul Irvine, Patrick Italiano, Yow Itoh, Timo & Eva Jaatinen, Rowan Jackson, Chris Janssen, Atli Mar Johannsson, Ronald Johnston, Keith Jolly, Bill Jones, Rob Jones, Amaury Jousseaume, Michele Judica, John Justus, David Kelynack, Arthur Kemp, Kari Kirvesoja, Dieter Kluckow, Norbert Kneilmann, Martin Koch, Bernhard Kolbe, Christian Koopmann, Manfred Kopp, Allan Kramer, Martin Kräuchi, Erich Krebs, Manuel Kurth, Gary Labate, Mirto Lamberti, Michael Lamm, Enrico Lanzilotto, Gianfranco Lanzoni, Joe LaPille, Anders Larson, Tonny Laursen, Beat Läuchli, Lonnie Lenarduzzi, Charlie Lenore, Michele Leonello, Nicholas Lette, John Levitt, Tracy Ling, Nastya Litvinkova, Jeff Ludwig, Mike Lüscher, Christian Lysholm, Stanislas Machoïr, Leon Magistro, Helge Mamen, Marino Mangano, Michael Manthey, Robert Marksteiner, Leo Martorana, Thierry de Mascureau, Elie Masri, Mike Matzek, Andy Maxwell, Grahame May, John May, Ed McDonough, David Mericle, Steve Merrihew, Tom Mertens, Wil Mertens, Andrea Militello, Jochen Minder, Christian Mitterdorfer, Peter Monk, Guy Monty, Tony Morgan, Alex Müller, Oskar Müller, Thomas Müller, Michael Nakamura, Phil Nash, Frank Neff, Jim Neill, Chris Nelson, Felix Neumaier, Mal Nicholson, Leif Nielsen, Hoa Nguyen, Wolfgang Oelsner, Hisato Ogasawara, Péter Olasz, Roelf Onstwedder, Croci Ornella, Leo Ørtenblad, Giuseppe Ottone, Vincenzo Pagano, Hannes Paling, Emilio Paltrinieri, Richard Pamboer, Tony Pappas, Gary Pearce, Giorgio Penatti, Michele Perla, John Perry, Geert Jan Peters, Massimo Petrocchi, Andy & Dan Petschenig, Dieter Piernikorz, Patrick Poltera, Geoff & Ann Poole, Giovanni Poretti, Toby Primrose, Manos Protonotarios, Rainer Queck, Alexander Radicke, Kai Rafeldt, Clifford Rasweiler, Jonathan Reddaway, Frank Reich, Mario Renato, Terry Richardson, René Richner, Georges Rikir, Karl Robertson, Philip Robinson, Guido Romani, Philippe Romano, Helmuth Rothenhäusler, Andy Rottmann, Jack Rugh, Wilson (Jack) Rugh, Francisco Ruiz Rico, João Mello de Sampayo, Juan Ramón Sánchez, Karl Sanders, Tom Sanor, Joseph Santos-Fernandes, Laurent Schandeler, Olivier Schmid, Reinhard Schmidlin, Stefan Schmölzl, Helmut Schwartz, Peter Schweiss, Michael Scott, Warren Scoville, Paul Severson, Marino Simons, Giorgio Sivocci, Chris Slade, Andreas Sladek, Scott Slavin, Del Smith, Marco Soldano, Georgios Solomonides, Marius Sorteberg, Eric Söfringsgård, Beat Stauffenegger, Jim Steck, Francis Steiger, Bob Stewart, Simon Stewart, Malcolm Street, Piero Stroppa, Don Suiter, Beat Suter, Rolf Svensson, Ken Swanstrom, Gert-Jan Tas, Taso, Volker Then, Robert Thompson, Thorodd Thoroddsson, Daniele De Pietri Tonelli, Hans-Georg Tornow, Victor Hugo Trein, Beat Trinkler, Mirco Turrini, Jochen Tydecks, Giorgio Ungarelli, Dirk Van Rompaey, Lukas Van Daele, Davide Varenna, Horace Varner, Gé Verheijen, Agusti Vilella, Alex Voss, Eric Waiter, Colin Wallace, Mark Wallis, Sunny Waters, Ian Watkins, Ken Wears, John Webber, Richard Welty, John Wheeler, Thomas Wilhelm, Michael Williams, Robert Winwood, Ward Witkowski, Harald Witt, George Zachopoulos, Damian Zaremba, Alexander Zimmermann, Wim v.d. Zon, Grant Yoxon and Brenno de Zwart. Special thanks are due to my wife Jennifer, to dedicated Montreal enthusiasts and Alfa Romeo collectors Dirk & Hannelore Nehme, to Bernhard Schalbetter, the late Montreal Europa Registrar, and to Elvira Ruocco and Marco Fazio of the Alfa Romeo Historical Archives at Arese.

I should like to express my indebtedness to Tim Berners-Lee and other colleagues at CERN, who invented the World Wide Web that has made this information resource possible. Visitor counter since 1 June 1996 courtesy of digits.com.

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Index

Top of main page

Accelerator
Achilles' heel
Acknowledgements
Advertising
Air conditioner
Air filter
Air grilles
Air intakes
Alternator
Ammeter
Antenna
Art drawings

Battery
Bobcor racing
Books
Brake callipers
Brake discs
Brake hydraulics
Brochures

Calendar art
Cam covers
Camshafts
Carb conversion
Cards
Cartoons
CD-ROMs
Chains
Chain guides
Chain tensioners
Chassis Nos
Chianti clip
Cigarette lighter
Clock
Clutch
Comments
Compression testing
Contact
Contemporary competition
Cooling
Copyright
Covers
Crankshaft nut
CRBB system
Cylinder heads

Demister
Display cases
Door stops

Electric windows
Emblems
EMC
Emission
End of the line
Engine
Engine mounts
Engineering
English reviews
Exhausts
Expo souvenirs
Expo '67
External trim
Eyelid buffers
Eyelids

Filler cap
Finish
Fire risk
Fuel filters
Fuel gauge
Fuel injectors
Fuel pumps
Fuel vapour separator
Fuses
Future EU Montreal meetings

Gaskets
Gearbox
Geneva 1970
Guibo

Handbrake
Handling kit
Hand throttle
Hazard flasher
Heart
Heater
Homologation
Horns
Hybrid engine

Identification
Idling
Ignition coils
Ignition distribution
Ignition relay
Ignition switch
Ignition units
Internal trim

Lamps
Large models
Liners
Links to related subjects
Locks
Luggage straps

Marciano 268A
Marine Montreal
Mirrors
Modifications
Monti girls
Montreal cabriolet
Montreal creators
Montreal GTV
Montreal highboy
Montreal jeep
Montreal owners
Montreals worldwide
"Montreal II"
"Montreal III"
Movies
Museums
Music
My Montreals

NACA duct

Offers
Oil filters
Oils
Oil separator
Oil sump
Origins
Other reviews
Other switches
Owner manuals

Parts catalogues
Parts cross-referencing
Parts suppliers
Past EU Montreal meetings
Performance
Pistons
Posters
Power outlet
Prices
Production
Propeller shaft

Radio
Rebound straps
Records
Registers
Related models

Seals
Seat belts
Service carnet
Service manuals
Small models
Sound insulation
Spark plugs
Special tools
Specifications
Spica BC
Spica CSS
Spica FCS
Spica fuel delivery
Spica microswitch
Spica pump
Spica reference
Spica service
Spica TA
Spoiler
Stamps
Starter
Steering
Stickers
Street View
Suspension

TA offsets
TA replacement
Tasman engine
Technical drawings
Temp compensator
Test run
Throttle adjustment
Tool bulletins
Tool kit
Tool sets
TV
Tyres

Upholstery
US Montreal meetings

Vent windows
Voltage regulator

Wheels
Wheel hubs
Wheel nuts
Window glass
Window struts
Wipers
Wiring diagram

3D models
3-litre engine

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Copyright

Alfisti are welcome to link to this website at http://www.alfamontreal.info from other appropriate web pages or bulletin boards. It is also possible to provide links to individual sections of the website. (e.g, the link http://www.alfamontreal.info/index.html#Sources connects to the "Parts suppliers" section), but be aware that such links may break when the website is updated.

This website is an information resource for Montreal owners that I maintain and provide free of charge from a paid commercial server. Neither the website nor my books are intended as sources of income for people submitting articles to motoring magazines, club newsletters or other publications. The copying of images or text (original or translated) from this website or my books to publications, magazines, other media, bulletin boards or web servers, and linking to individual images or sub-pages, is not authorised.

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Contact

Comments, corrections and contributions (especially photos and personal stories for the Montreal owners section) are welcome. Please notify me of the updated URL if any of the links to other websites are found to be no longer working.

This is a non-commercial hobby website maintained in my very limited spare time. Unfortunately it is not possible for me to reply to all messages received. To avoid disappointment, please do not send me email regarding Montreals for sale and wanted, Montreal spare parts, parts for other Alfa Romeo cars, Montreal evaluations, models or penpals wanted, advice on buying Montreals, family relatives sought, problem diagnosis, engine parameters, bodywork dimensions, repair instructions, translations, tourism in Switzerland, hotels in Geneva, requests for meetings, employment opportunities with the UNO, etc. Thank you for your understanding!

Bruce Taylor

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